SC 122b Anatomy and Physiology II

Course Description:
Second semester of a two-semester sequence course dealing with the structure and function of the human body and mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis covering the study of the endocrine, blood, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

  • Prerequisite Courses: SC 122 A (Human Anatomy and Physiology part 1)

A. PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOS):
The student will be able to:

  1. Describe the structure, function, and basic pathologies of the human body.
  2. Demonstrate a solid foundation in basic biological sciences.
  3. Describe health career and allied professions and gain experience working effectively in groups with health professionals to address human life sciences and health problems.
  4. Discuss, analyze, and interpret fundamental and current issues relevant to human life sciences and health problems, and communicate information in a critical, scientific, and technologically advanced manner

B. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS) - GENERAL
The student will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of the organ and organ system levels of organization of the human body, including specific knowledge demonstrated regarding the endocrine, blood, lymphatic, cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

SLO

PLO 1

PLO 2

PLO 3

PLO 4

1

IDM

ID

I

I

I = Introduced
D = Demonstrated
M = Mastered

C. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS) – SPECIFIC
The student will be able to:

General SLO 1: . Demonstrate knowledge of the organ and organ system levels of organization of the human body, including specific knowledge demonstrated regarding the endocrine, blood, lymphatic, cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

1.1 Describe the differences between hormonal and neural controls of homeostasis. Describe how hormones are classified chemically, how hormones are acting on their target tissues and how their release is regulated. Describe the anatomy and physiology of the anterior and posterior pituitary gland, its interconnection with the hypothalamus. Describe the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas, and gonads. List and describe the effects of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, pancreas, and gonads. List and describe the effects of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal, testicular, and ovarian hormones, and the consequences of hypo or hypersecretion of these hormones. Explain the effects of the Natriuretic Factor and the hormones produced by the placenta, kidneys, skin, and fat tissue.

Quiz and/or examination. Laboratory exercise

1.2 Explain the structure, function, and production of Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes. Explain hemoglobin synthesis and what factors affect its synthesis. Describe the mechanisms involved in blood clotting and clot removal. Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups and the importance of blood typing in transfusions. Describe the function of blood expanders and their use in medical practice.

Quiz and/or examination Laboratory exercise Demonstrate ability to identify in laboratory.

1.3 Explain the location, size, and thoracic orientation of the heart. Describe the anatomy and physiology of the four (4) heart chambers. Name the major branches of the coronary arteries and veins , name the valves and their location and function, and the components of the cardiac conductive pathway. Describe the events that occur in each chamber during a complete cardiac cycle. Explain the significance of the P, Q, R, S, T waves and the associated intervals on a standard ECG. Describe the normal heart sounds. Explain the importance of Autonomic Nervous System, Hormones, Ions, and other factors in controlling the heart. Explain the cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, and the factors affecting them. Describe the differences between arteries, veins, and capillaries based on their structure and function. Define vasoconstriction, vasodilation, blood flow, resistance, and blood pressure and explain these factors are regulated. Explain what produces the hypertension and what are its symptoms and consequences. Describe the circulatory shock and its possible causes. Describe fetal circulation. Name and give location of the major arteries and veins in the systemic circulation. Describe the anatomy and physiology of the hepatic circulation.

Quiz and/or examination. Demonstrate ability to identify in laboratory.

1.4 Describe the structure, function, and distribution of lymphatic vessels. Explain the process of lymph formation and transport in the body. Describe the lymphoid cells formation and their function (plasma cells, B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular and dendritic cells, etc). Describe the structure and function of lymphoid organs (spleen,

Quiz and/or examination Demonstrate ability to identify components in laboratory.

1.5 Describe the function of nonspecific (innate) protective structures involved in general immunity (skin and mucous membranes, gastric pH, salivary and lacrimal lysozyme, monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells) and explain the process of phagocytosis and phagocyte mobilization (leukocytosis, margination, diapedesis and chemotaxis). Describe the inflammatory response and explain the importance of inflammatory chemicals (histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, growth factors, and the complement system) in inflammation processes. Explain the importance of interferons, complement system, and fever as second line of general immunity. Describe the function of specific (adaptative) protective structures involved in specific immunity (antibody and cell mediated immunity), antigen structure and formation, and MHC system . Explain the origin, formation, and function of B and T lymphocytes, and antigen presenting cells as part of the adaptative immunity. Explain the differences between primary and secondary immune responses and the importance of active and passive humoral immunity in maintaining general health. Explain the structure of different classes of antibodies (Ig. A, D, G, E, and M), the way antibodies destroy antigens (neutralization, agglutination, precipitation, and complement system fixation and activation) and the medical use of monoclonal antibodies. Describe the function of T cells involved in cell mediated immunity, clonal selection and differentiation, T cell activation, and explain the importance of interleukins in modulating defense mechanisms. Explain the differences between grafts (autografts, isografts, allografts, and xenografts ) in organ transplants and how rejection of grafts can be prevented. Explain the pathogenesis of different congenital and acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (SCID, AIDS), autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions (immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions).

Quiz and/or examination. Demonstrate ability to identify in laboratory.

1.6 Describe the structure and function of different organs forming the respiratory system (nose and nasal cavity, sinuses, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli). Describe the coverings, structure, and blood supply of the lungs. Explain the relationship between Boyle’s law and the respiratory cycle, the importance of respiratory muscles in breathing, and name the physical factors affecting the pulmonary ventilation. Describe the respiratory volumes forming the respiratory capacities and explain how these respiratory volumes are used to asses pulmonary function. Explain the relationship between Dalton’s and Henry’s laws in the process of gas exchange (external and internal gas exchange). Explain the mechanism of association and dissociation of Oxygen and Hemoglobin in the blood and describe the factors affecting the blood oxygen level. Describe the most important mechanisms involved in production of hypoxia (anemic, ischemic, histotoxic, and hypoxic hypoxia). Explain how Carbon Dioxide is transported in the blood (dissolved, bound, and as bicarbonate ion), the Haldane effect, and the importance of the bicarbonate buffer system. Describe the neuronal mechanisms involved in controlling the respiratory process and the factors affecting the rate and amplitude of breathing (neuronal and chemical factors). Describe the process and effects of acclimatization to high altitude. Describe the pathogenesis of COPD, asthma, lung TB, and lung cancer.

Quiz and/or examination. Demonstrate ability to identify in laboratory.

1.7 Describe the microscopic and macroscopic anatomy of the oral cavity, salivary glands, teeth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Explain the differences between mechanical and chemical digestion. Explain how sugars, fats, proteins, vitamins, electrolytes, and water are digested and absorbed in the gastrointestinal system. Explain the composition and functions of saliva and the mechanisms involved in controlling salivation, mastication, deglutition, gastric digestion and secretion, gastric mobility and emptying, small and large intestine digestion and absorption. Explain the process of bile production and secretion, importance of the liver and pancreas in chemical digestion, and how different hormones and neural factors affect the pancreatic secretion. List the six nutrient groups and explain how they fit in the pyramid food guide. Define nutrient, essential nutrient, and calorie. Name the most important dietary sources and importance of proteins, fats, sugars, vitamins, and minerals. Explain what an antioxidant is and what foods are high in antioxidants. Define metabolism and explain the differences between anabolism and catabolism. Define oxidation and reduction and explain the importance of these reactions in metabolism. Explain the function of coenzymes in cellular metabolism. Explain the differences between substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation. Explain the events and products occurring during glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, and electron transport system. Define gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycogenolysis. Explain how fatty acids are used to produce energy, ketone bodies formation, and how amino acids are used to synthesize proteins and to produce energy. Explain the formation and the importance of the amino acid and sugar-fat pools. Explain the functions of the liver as a key organ in metabolism. Explain the differences between different groups of lipoproteins and their functions in the body. Define basal metabolic rate and total metabolic rate and what factors are controlling each. Explain what is meant by body energy balance and indicate the common mechanisms involved in heat production and loss from the body. Describe the effects of inadequate protein intake on the fetal nervous system. Describe the cause and consequence of low metabolic rate in elderly.

Quiz and/or examination. Demonstrate ability to identify in laboratory.

1.9 Describe the structure and function of the testes, male accessory organs, and penis. Explain the hormonal regulation of testicular function and the physiological effects of Testosterone on male anatomy. Describe the phases of the male sexual response. Describe the structure and function of the ovaries, female reproductive tract, female accessory organs, female external genitalia, and mammary glands. Explain the hormonal regulation of the ovarian and menstrual cycles, describe the phases of the ovarian cycle and egg formation. Describe the phases of female sexual response. Describe the events of spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Indicate the infectious agents and modes of transmission of gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and genital herpes. Explain the process of sex determination, development of male and female structures, and describe the events of puberty and menopause. Explain the process of cleavage, fertilization, gastrulation, organogenesis, and describe the major events of fetal development. Describe changes in maternal reproductive organs and in cardiovascular, respiratory, and urinary system functioning during pregnancy. Explain the effects of pregnancy on maternal metabolism and posture. Explain how labor is initiated and describe the 3 stages of labor. Describe the changes that occur in fetal circulation after birth and explain how the breasts are prepared for lactation. Describe events that lead to genetic variability and explain what is an allele, phenotype, genotype, dominant-recessive inheritance, incomplete dominance and codominance. Describe the mechanism of sex-linked inheritance and explain how polygene inheritance differs from that resulting from the action of a single pair of alleles. Explain how gene expression may be modified by environmental factors. Describe how genomic imprinting and mitochondrial inheritance differ from classical inheritance. List and explain several procedures used to determine or predict genetic diseases.

Quiz and/or examination. Demonstrate ability to identify in laboratory.

D. COURSE CONTENT

  1. Endocrine System
  2. Blood
  3. Cardiovascular System
  4. Lymphatic System
  5. Immune System
  6. Respiratory System
  7. Digestive System
  8. Urinary System
  9. Reproductive System
E. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION

Lectures, audio-visuals (including videos/DVDs), laboratory exercises, and observations.


F. REQUIRED TEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS

Marieb, E. and Hoehn, Katjz. Human Anatomy and Physiology (2011) , 8th ed. (or subsequent editions) published by Pearson Publications


G. REFERENCE MATERIALS
Frank H. Netter, MD Atlas of Human Anatomy, Professional Edition, (2010), 5th edition. published by W.B. Saunders (or most recent edition). Mosby, Mosby’s Medical Dictionary (2008), 8th edition. Published by Mosby Publishing (or most recent edition). Arthur C Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology (2005), 11th edition, published by W.B. Saunders (or most recent edition).

H. INSTRUCTIONAL COST
None

I. EVALUATION
None

J. CREDIT BY EXAMINATION
None

 

This website and all COM-FSM Internet based services are best viewed with Firefox 3.0 or better.
© Copyright 2014 College of Micronesia-FSM | Site Disclaimer
P. O. Box 159, Kolonia, Pohnpei, 96941 - (691) 320-2480
College of Micronesia-FSM is accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges,
Western Association of Schools and Colleges, 10 Commercial Bldv., Suite 204, Novato, CA 94949, (415) 506-0234,
an institutional accrediting body recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation and the U.S. Department of Education.
Additional information about accreditation, including the filing of complaints against member institutions, can be found at: www.accjc.org

feedback