PH 321 Microbiology and Hygiene

Course Description:
This course provides students with a sound knowledge of common issues in community nutrition as it relates to the situation in the Pacific, and the skills to identify problems and address them. The practical component of the course provides hands-on experience in the analysis of existing data sets to identify trends in nutritional health in a particular community and to examine the surveillance system that is in place, the planning and implementation of an intervention strategy to promote and sustain health and prevent diseases amongst nutritionally vulnerable groups, and the evaluation of the likely impact of the intervention, its practicality, and sustainability.

  • Prerequisite Courses: Eligible to enter 3rd Year CAPH; SC 180 Microbiology

A. PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOS):
The student will be able to:

  1. Recognize, describe and discuss and research about the basic principles and practices of the specialty;
  2. List, discuss and demonstrate the essential public health functions or the specialty and its interrelationships with the other specialties and health disciplines at community and national levels;
  3. Describe, discuss and research adult, children and family health issues at community level;
  4. Discuss and demonstrate an understanding and practice of the speciality public health competencies;
  5. Demonstrate proper public health skills for its practice in the community as a national specialty practitioner;
  6. Discuss and demonstrate community and cultural sensitivity in the health care environment;
  7. Describe, discuss and research the health determinants and problems of adults, children and families;
  8. Demonstrate proper cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first aid techniques and other healing and patient care abilities;
  9. Demonstrate the ability and discuss how to conduct a community diagnosis and need assessment of the health determinants of the specialty in a community;
  10. Identify and demonstrate good practice in the specialty; and
  11. Have had management, planning experience and leadership role at a public health specialty at community and national levels.

B. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS) - GENERAL
The student will be able to:

  1. Describe the most common micro-organisms which cause food contamination and food poisoning.
  2. Describe and give examples of the factors conducive to microbial growth in food.
  3. Explain the principles of food preservation, primary food commodities, and fermentation.
  4. Explain the importance of food hygiene and sanitation in the food industry and in public health.
  5. Demonstrate the concepts of consumer protection, imported foods, food law and regulation.
  6. Identify and take appropriate actions in the investigation of food poisoning outbreaks

SLO

PLO 1

PLO 2

PLO 3

PLO 4

PLO 5

PLO 6

PLO 7

PLO 8

PLO 9

PLO 10

PLO 11

1

M

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

D

 

 

2

M

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

D

 

 

3

M

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

D

 

 

4

M

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

D

 

 

5

M

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

D

 

 

6

M

 

 

 

 

 

D

 

D

 

 

I = Introduced
D = Demonstrated
M = Mastered

C. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS) – SPECIFIC
The student will be able to:

General SLO 1: . Describe the most common micro-organisms which cause food contamination and food poisoning.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

1.1. Explain the following concepts: food contamination, food safety, and habitat.

1.2. Identify the most common micro-organisms in the atmosphere, soil, water, plants and of zoonotic origin.

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 2: Describe and give examples of the factors conducive to microbial growth in food.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

2.1. Briefly explain the growth and survival process of micro-organisms in foods.

2.2. Outline, with examples, the intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting this process.

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 3: Explain the principles of food preservation, primary food commodities, and fermentation

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

3.1. Describe the microbiological components of food preservation.

3.2. Give examples and describe the microbiology of primary food commodities.

3.3. Describe the structure and composition of fermented and microbial foods.

Assessment result of project and intervention description. Group discussions to be graded according to a specified rubric.
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 4: . Explain the importance of food hygiene and sanitation in the food industry and in public health.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

4.1. Define and give example of food hazards.

4.2. Identify the risk factors associated with food-borne illnesses.

4.3. Describe the most common modes of food contamination.

4.4. Classify the agents of food illness (i.e. bacterial and non-bacterial agents); and identify the emerging pathogens.

4.5. Outline different methods for the microbiological examination of foods and discuss their advantages and limitations.

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric.
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 5: . Demonstrate the concepts of consumer protection, imported foods, food law and regulation

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

5.1 Outline major aspects related to consumer protection and food law.

5.2. Analyze the existing legislation governing food and food premises in the Federated States of Micronesia.

5.3. Apply the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept in food preparation.

5.4. Describe the roles and functions of the local and international food regulatory and consumer protection agencies.

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 6. Identify and take appropriate actions in the investigation of food poisoning outbreaks

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

6.1. Identify various hazards in foods.

6.2. Outline and explain necessary actions to be taken in each step during food-related complaints or during a food poisoning outbreak.

6.3. Give examples of food poisoning outbreaks which happened locally; explain lessons learned pertaining to food handling and hygienic principles and practice.

Groups discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

D. COURSE CONTENT

  1. Introduction to food hygiene and microbiology
    1. The scope of food microbiology
      1. Micro-organisms and food: food contamination and preservation, food safety
      2. Microbiological quality assurance
    2. Micro-organisms and food materials
      1. Diversity of habitat
      2. Micro-organisms in the atmosphere
      3. Micro-organisms of soil, water, plants, and of animal origin
  2. Factors affecting the growth and survival of micro-organisms in foods
    1. Microbial growth
    2. Intrinsic factors (substrate limitations) and extrinsic factors (environmental limitations)
    3. Implicit factors
    4. Predictive food microbiology
  3. Food preservation, primary food commodities and fermentation
    1. The microbiology of food preservation
      1. Heat processing and irradiation
      2. High-pressure processing (pascalization) and low-temperature storage (chilling and freezing)
      3. Chemical preservatives
      4. Modification of atmosphere
      5. Control of water content and its role
      6. Compartmentalization
    2. Primary food commodities: milk, meat, fish, and plant products
    3. Fermented and microbial foods: yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, fermented milks, cheese, fermented vegetables/meats/fish, beer, vinegar, mold fermentations, soy sauce, rice wine, and mycoprotein
  4. Food microbiology and public health
    1. Food hazards
    2. Incidence of foodborne diseases and their significance
    3. Risk factors associated with foodborne illnesses
    4. The emerging pathogens
    5. Functions and microflora of the alimentary tract
    6. The pathogenesis of diarrhoeal disease
  5. Bacterial and non-bacterial agents of food illness
    1. Bacterial agents:
      1. Bacillus Cereus
      2. Campylobacter
      3. Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens
      4. Enterobacter sakazakii
      5. Escherichia coli
      6. Salmonella
      7. Shigella
      8. Staphylococcus aureus
      9. Vibrio
      10. Yersinia enterocolitica
      11. Scombrotoxic fish poisoning
    2. Non-bacterial agents:
      1. Helminths and Nematods
      2. Protozoa
      3. Toxigenic algae
      4. Toxigenic fungi
      5. Foodborne viruses
      6. Spongiform encephalopathies
  6. Methods for the microbiological examination of foods
    1. Indicator organisms
    2. Direct examination
    3. Cultural techniques
    4. Enumeration methods
    5. Alternative methods
    6. Rapid methods for the detection of specific pathogens
    7. Laboratory accreditation
  7. Consumer protection and imported foods
    1. Consumer protection and aspects of Food Law
    2. Local and international food regulatory agencies: roles and functions
    3. Controlling the microbiological quality of foods
      1. Quality and criteria
      2. Sampling schemes
      3. Quality control using microbiological criteria and control at source
      4. Codes of good manufacturing practice
      5. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept
      6. Risk analysis
  8. Investigation of food complaints and food poisoning outbreaks
    1. Gathering of information
    2. Inspection of food premises
    3. Techniques for taking food samples
    4. Dispatch, analysis and interpretation of laboratory results
    5. Writing inspection reports
    6. Examples of fish poisoning outbreaks: types, signs and symptoms

E. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION

  1. Lectures: in-class lectures
  2. Lectures: in-class lectures
  3. Group discussions, exercises, and presentations.

F. REQUIRED TEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS
Adams MR., Moss MO. (2008). Food microbiology (3rd ed.). London: Royal Society of Chemistry. (or latest edition)

G. REFERENCE MATERIALS
Doyle MP., Beuchat LR. (2007). Food microbiology: Fundamentals and frontiers. (3rd ed.). Washington DC: ASM Press. (or most recent edition)
Williams T. (1991). Food environment and health. Knoxville, TN: B.R. Publishing Corporation.
McLauchlin J., Little C. (2007). Hobbs’ food poisoning and food hygiene (7th ed.). New York, NY: A Hodder Arnold Publication. (or most recent edition)
Food safety resources on the internet: http://bubl.ac.uk/link/f/foodsafety.htm
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, USA: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/intro.html
The World Health Organization (WHO) – Food Safety Program: http://www.who.int/fsf/

H. INSTRUCTIONAL COST
none

I. EVALUATION
None

J. CREDIT BY EXAMINATION
None

 

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