PH 231-Food Nutrition and Lifestyle Diseases

Course Description:
This course focuses on problems of inadequate and/or imbalanced nutrient intake and corresponding diseases and disorders. Related lifestyle diseases that are relevant in Micronesia will be covered. Potential risk factors for and physiological impact of nutrient deficiencies and diseases will also be discussed. The course also looks at the role of socio-economic development in relation to nutritionally related diseases in the Micronesian and Pacific communities. Students will be introduced to simple therapeutic diets commonly used as part of treatment and will be prepared to offer general dietary advice to peers and family members.

  • Prerequisite Courses: PH 131 or Instructor’s permission

A. PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOS):
The student will be able to:

  1. Recognize, describe, discuss and research about the basic public health science facts and principles;
  2. List, discuss and demonstrate the essential public health functions and their interrelationships at community and district level;
  3. Describe, discuss and research adult, children and family health issues;
  4. Discuss and demonstrate an understanding and practice of some generic public health competencies;
  5. Demonstrate proper public health skills for public health practice in the community as a national public health officer;
  6. Discuss and demonstrate community and cultural sensitivity in the health care environment;
  7. Describe, discuss and research the determinants and problems of the health of adults, children and families;
  8. Demonstrate proper cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), first aid techniques, and other healing and patient care abilities;
  9. Demonstrate the ability and discuss how to make a community diagnosis based on the determinants of health in a community;
  10. Identify and demonstrate good public health practice;
  11. Have had work experience at a public health facility at community and national levels.

B. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS) - GENERAL
The student will be able to:

  1. Relate the basic concepts of nutrition and their relationship with human health, diseases or disorders.
  2. Describe potential risk factors contributing to nutritional disorders and lifestyle diseases in Micronesia and in the Pacific.
  3. Identify and discuss common nutritional disorders and associated problems, their manifestations and physiological effects.
  4. Describe proposed dietary guidelines for specific diseases and medical conditions
  5. Discuss the roles and impacts of the various intervention programs currently underway in Micronesian and Pacific communities.

SLO

PLO 1

PLO 2

PLO 3

PLO 4

PLO 5

PLO 6

PLO 7

PLO 8

PLO 9

PLO 10

PLO 11

1

D

D

 

 

 

D

M

 

 

 

 

2

D

D

 

 

 

D

M

 

 

 

 

3

D

D

 

 

 

D

M

 

 

 

 

4

D

D

 

 

 

D

M

 

 

 

 

5

D

D

 

 

 

D

M

 

 

 

 

I = Introduced
D = Demonstrated
M = Mastered

C. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS) – SPECIFIC
The student will be able to:

General SLO 1: Relate the basic concepts of nutrition and their relationship with human health, diseases or disorders.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

1.1. Describe the two major disciplines that provide the foundation for nutrition.

1.2. Discuss how these two major disciplines contribute toward our understanding of human nutrition needs.

1.3. Discuss the functions of food and nutrients and their role in human health.

1.4. Compare the levels of nutritional status: optimal nutrition, marginal nutrition, malnutrition, and over-nutrition; describe an individual or a situation that would illustrate each level, and the physical or clinical signs that should be used to identify it.

1.5. State the emerging health issues worldwide (i.e. obesity epidemic; escalating problem of cardiovascular diseases in the aging population; growth in ethnic and racial diversity.) and explain the role of nutrition on controlling such issues.

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 2: Describe potential risk factors contributing to nutritional disorders and lifestyle diseases in Micronesia and in the Pacific.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

2.1. Describe, using examples, the various factors that would contribute to nutritional diseases/ conditions (i.e. physical factors, lifestyle/dietary factors, environmental factors, socio-economic factors, mental factors, psychological factors, and spiritual factors).

2.2. Discuss how food environment and food habits would also affect food choices and nutritional status.

2.3. Identify and explain how personal, cultural, social and psychological environments would influence food choices and preferences.

2.4. Discuss how public policy can affect the food. system (including nutrition labeling, use of food additives, and food sanitation standards in health care facilities) and why there is a need for public policy.

2.5. List five measurable objectives that pertain to diet or nutrition.

2.6. Compare and contrast the food patterns of a cultural and ethnic group different from one’s own.

2.7. Use MyPyramid to develop a 1-day menu for a specific age group.

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 3: Identify and discuss common nutritional disorders and associated problems, their manifestations and physiological effects.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

3.1. Describe the traditional food habits and practices in Micronesia and discuss how these have changed over time.

3.2. Explain the relation between modernization and evolution (frequency) of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) or lifestyle diseases in Micronesia and in the Pacific.

3.3. Describe the following diseases and conditions in terms of pathology and epidemiological distribution and trends in Micronesia and in the Pacific:

  1. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels: coronary heart disease (CHD), atherosclerosis, hypertension and vascular diseases
  2. Obesity
  3. Diabetes mellitus
  4. Cancer
  5. Malnutrition
  6. Vitamin A deficiency
  7. Iodine deficiency (Goiter)
  8. Dental caries

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 4: Describe proposed dietary guidelines for specific diseases and medical conditions.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

4.1. Identify dietary guidelines to prevent lifestyle diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and obesity.

4.2. Explain basic food groups in preventing and managing malnutrition and anemia.

4.3. Select necessary dietary guidelines for selected cancer related symptoms

Groups discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 5. Discuss the roles and impacts of the various intervention programs currently underway in Micronesian and Pacific communities.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

5.1. Describe the nutrition intervention programs currently underway in the Pacific.

5.2. Describe and discuss the nutrition intervention programs in the FSM.

5.3. Explain how lifestyle and dietary interventions would work for gout (hyperuricaemia).

5.4. Explain the importance of preventing Vitamin A deficiency among children and describe how these intervention programs work in Micronesia.

5.5. Discuss how dental caries affect health and describe the general guidelines of the oral prevention programs for pre-school and primary school students.

5.6. Explain the dietary aspects of osteomalacia (vitamin D deficiency), especially in the vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly women, young children) and what can be done to prevent this condition.

Groups discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

D. COURSE CONTENT

  1. Nutrition and health
    1. Foundations of nutrition science
    2. Functions of food and nutrients
    3. The 4 levels of the individual nutritional status
    4. The emerging health issues worldwide
  2. Risk factors contributing to Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Micronesia and in the Pacific.
    1. An overview of risk factors (non-modifiable and modifiable factors)
      1. Physical factors
      2. Lifestyle/ dietary factors
      3. Environmental factors
      4. Socio-economic factors
      5. Mental factors
      6. Psychological factors
      7. Spiritual factors
    2. The food environment and food habits
      1. Development of food habits – How personal, cultural, social and psychological environments influence food choices and preferences
      2. Trends in personal food habits – Basic determinants of food choices and the associated health concerns
      3. Biotechnology and food: promise and controversy
    3. Nutritional policy and national health problems
    4. Personal assessment of food patterns
  3. Common nutritional disorders and Non Communicable Diseases in Micronesia and in the Pacific
    1. Traditional dietary patterns and dietary changes in Micronesia
    2. Modern civilization and non-communicable diseases
      1. The role of development in relation to NCDs in Micronesia and in the Pacific
      2. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels
        • -Coronary heart disease: the problem of atherosclerosis
        • -Hypertension and vascular diseases
      3. Obesity – beyond energy balance
      4. Diabetes mellitus – a silent epidemic
      5. Cancer
        • -The process of cancer development
        • -The body’s defense system
        • -Impact of cancer therapy on nutrition
      6. Malnutrition
      7. Vitamin A deficiency
      8. Iodine deficiency
      9. Dental caries
  4. Dietary guidelines for some specific diseases and conditions
    1. Healthy dietary guidelines for coronary heart diseases and hypertension
    2. The diabetic diet and glycemic index of foods
    3. Dietary guidelines for obesity
    4. Dietary interventions for malnutrition
    5. Dietary guidelines for anaemia
    6. Nutritional therapy and management of selected cancer-related symptoms
  5. Nutritional intervention programs and initiatives
    1. Micronesia's intervention program
    2. Gout and hyperuricaemia
    3. Vitamin A deficiency – intervention programs in Micronesia and the Pacific
    4. Dental caries and its impacts on health – National prevention programs
    5. Osteomalacia (Vitamin D deficiency) and the vulnerable groups

E. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION

  1. Lecture: in-class lectures followed by group discussions and activities relevant to the topics presented.
  2. Tutorials and group presentations

F. REQUIRED TEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS
Schlenker ED., Long S. (2007). William’s essentials of nutrition and diet therapy (9th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. (or most recent edition)

G. REFERENCE MATERIALS
Coyne T. (2000). Lifestyle diseases in pacific community. Noumea: Secretariat of the Pacific Communities (SPC). (Or most recent edition)
WHO. (1981). Health aspects of food and nutrition: A manual for developing countries in the western pacific region of the W.H.O. (3rd ed.) Noumea: Stationary Office Books (Or most recent edition)
Whitney EN. (2008). Understanding nutrition (11th ed.). Standford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning. (Or most recent edition)
Shils ME. et al. (2006). Modern nutrition in health & disease (10th ed.).Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Or most recent edition)

H. INSTRUCTIONAL COST
none

I. EVALUATION
none

J. CREDIT BY EXAMINATION
None

 

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