PH 211-Health Research Methology

Course Description:
This course introduces students to research as an essential tool to create new knowledge and to develop proper utilization of existing knowledge in health and health care services. The course covers the basic concepts and principles in the classic quantitative approach, which looks at disease causation and patterns in the communities. It also addresses the qualitative approach, which looks at social aspects and individual behaviour as factors determining people’s health and disease status. Instructions on how to construct a mixed methods research design will also be presented. Other important issues related to health research, including literature review, ethical considerations, and writing strategies will be discussed.

  • Prerequisite Courses: PH 111 or Instructor’s permission

A. PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOS):
The student will be able to:

  1. Recognize, describe, discuss and research about the basic public health science facts and principles;
  2. List, discuss and demonstrate the essential public health functions and their interrelationships at community and district level;
  3. Describe, discuss and research adult, children and family health issues;
  4. Discuss and demonstrate an understanding and practice of some generic public health competencies;
  5. Demonstrate proper public health skills for public health practice in the community as a national public health officer;
  6. Discuss and demonstrate community and cultural sensitivity in the health care environment;
  7. Describe, discuss and research the determinants and problems of the health of adults, children and families;
  8. Demonstrate proper cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), first aid techniques, and other healing and patient care abilities;
  9. Demonstrate the ability and discuss how to make a community diagnosis based on the determinants of health in a community;
  10. Identify and demonstrate good public health practice;
  11. Have had work experience at a public health facility at community and national levels.

B. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS) - GENERAL
The student will be able to:

  1. Develop a research proposal on a health-related issue
  2. Understand basic principles of and steps in undertaking a quantitative, a qualitative, and a mixed methods research

SLO

PLO 1

PLO 2

PLO 3

PLO 4

PLO 5

PLO 6

PLO 7

PLO 8

PLO 9

PLO 10

PLO 11

1

D

 

D

 

 

D

D

 

D

 

 

2

D

 

D

 

 

D

D

 

D

 

 

I = Introduced
D = Demonstrated
M = Mastered

C. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS) – SPECIFIC
The student will be able to:

General SLO 1: Develop a research proposal on a health-related issue.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

1.1. Define research

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

1.2. List and describe categories of research

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

1.3. Explain the purpose of literature reviews

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

1.4. Be familiar with the different writing strategies and possible ethical considerations in health research

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

1.5. Describe different research proposal formats used in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

1.6. Identify ethical issues anticipated in problem statement, purpose statement and research questions, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, writing and disseminating the results, of the proposed research undertaking.

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 2: Understand basic principles of and steps in undertaking a quantitative, a qualitative, and a mixed methods research.

Student Learning Outcomes

Assessment strategies

2.1. Understand the principles and methods used in conducting a quantitative research

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
practice sets
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

2.2. Explain the experimental and observational research strategies, their methods of work, their advantages and limitations

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
practice sets
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

2.3. Understand the principles and methods used in conducting a qualitative research

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

2.4. Describe the characteristics of qualitative research

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

2.5. Outline the structure of a report of the research findings

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
Practice Sets
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

2.6. Understand the principles and methods used in conducting a mixed methods research

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric
Practice Sets
Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

D. COURSE CONTENT Introduction to research: research and scientific methods

  1. Research: concepts and categories
  2. Scientific foundations of research
  3. Framework of study designs
  4. Research planning and management
  1. Review of the literature
    1. Why do literature reviews
    2. Techniques for literature reviews
    3. Writing literature reviews: basic models and styles
  2. Writing strategies and ethical considerations
    1. Research proposal formats:
      1. Qualitative proposal: qualitative constructivist/ interpretivist format; qualitative advocacy/ participatory format
      2. Quantitative format
      3. Mixed methods format
    2. Writing the Introduction:
      1. Its importance and the importance of the study
      2. Its model
    3. Writing the purpose statement
      1. Significance and meaning of a purpose statement
      2. Examples on how to write the purpose statement for each type of research:
        1. Qualitative method: phenomenology studies, case studies, ethnographic studies, grounded theory studies;
        2. Quantitative method: published survey studies, dissertation survey studies, experimental studies
        3. Mixed methods: convergent strategy of enquiry, sequential strategy of inquiry
    4. Write the Research Questions and Hypothesis
      1. Qualitative research: central questions for ethnology and case studies
      2. Quantitative research: a null hypothesis, nondirectional and directional hypothesis, descriptive and inferential questions
      3. Mixed methods research: what types of questions to combine and how best to combine
    5. The use of Theory
      1. Quantitative theory-use: definition, forms, replacement, model of writing
      2. Qualitative theory-use: variation, location and patterns
      3. Mixed methods theory-use: examples of a transformative-emancipatory mixed methods study
    6. Definitions, limitations and significance of each study method
      1. Definition of research terminology
      2. Delimitations and limitations encountered
      3. Significance of the proposed study
    7. Ethical issues anticipated in each step of the proposed research
  3. Quantitative methods
    1. Review of the experimental versus observational strategies, their methods of work, their advantages and limitations
    2. Review of descriptive studies:
      1. Case series
      2. Community diagnosis or needs assessment
      3. Descriptive cross-sectional studies
      4. Community surveys
      5. Ecological descriptive studies
    3. Review of analytical strategies:
      1. Case-control studies
      2. Cohort studies (prospective and retrospective)
      3. Analytical cross-sectional studies
    4. Survey method plans:
      1. Survey design
      2. Choice of population and sample size
      3. Survey instruments
      4. Variables to be surveyed
      5. Data analysis methods
    5. Experimental method plan:
      1. Participants or subjects: selection strategies
      2. Variables
      3. Instrumentation and materials
      4. Threats to validity - their potential impact on study procedure and statistical analysis
  4. Questionnaire design
    1. Concept, types and purposes of questionnaires
    2. Factors to be considered in questionnaire design
    3. Questionnaire format:
      1. Type of questions, language and wording style
      2. Forms of structured questions, length, layout and sequencing of questions
      3. Editing and coding
      4. Reliability and validity/ consistency checks
    4. Auxiliary activities:
      1. Pretesting a questionnaire
      2. Training of interviewers
      3. Call-backs (repeat visits)
      4. Editing and coding
  5. Review of descriptive statistics: methods for presenting and interpreting health-related data, some statistical concepts
    1. Data presentation method
    2. Tables, graphs and charts: how they work, when to use and for what kind of data
    3. Probability: fundamentals, additional rule, multiplication rule, probability through simulations, counting
    4. Correlation and regression: variation and prediction intervals, multiple regression, modeling
    5. Nonparametric statistics: Sign test, Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests for matched pairs, Wilcoxon rank-sum test for two independent samples, Kruskal-Wallis test, rank correlation, runs test for randomness
  6. Qualitative methods
    1. Characteristics of qualitative research
    2. Strategies of inquiry
    3. Role of researchers
    4. Data collection procedures: basic steps and data collection forms
    5. Data recoding procedures: basic steps and methods
    6. Basic methods of data analysis and interpretation
    7. Validity and accuracy of study findings
  7. Mixed methods procedures
    1. Components and characteristics of mixed methods research
    2. Criteria for choosing this research strategy, its implementation and integral characteristic
    3. Alternative strategies and models in mixed methods research
    4. Data collection, analysis and validation procedures
    5. Structure of a report on research findings

E. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION

  1. Lectures: in-class lectures, followed by group discussions and activities relevant to the topics presented.
  2. Group presentations: students’ presentations on selected readings and on the final research proposal.

F. REQUIRED TEXT AND COURSE MATERIALS
Creswell JW. (2008). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (3rd Ed.). Thousand-oaks, California: Sage Publication Inc. (or most recent edition).

G. REFERENCE MATERIALS

  1. The World Health Organization. (2001). Health research methodology (2nd Ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, WPRO. (or most recent edition).
  2. Brink H., Walt CVD. (2005). Fundamental of research methodologies for health-care professionals (2nd Ed.). South Africa: Juta Academic (or most recent edition).
  3. Hulley SB., et al. (2007) Designing clinical research (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (or most recent edition).
  4. Triola MF. (2007). Elementary statistics using excel (3rd Ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. (or most recent edition).
  5. H. INSTRUCTIONAL COST
    none

    I. EVALUATION
    none

    J. CREDIT BY EXAMINATION
    None

     

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