PH-152 Practical Health Services Management

Course Description: This course introduces the concepts, definition, principles, and main functions that are important in Health Services Management.  It will guide students toward good management practices that will be vital at central and peripheral levels of the health system.  The management theories and concepts are translated into practical examples and exercises guiding students to understand what happens in the lower- and mid-levels of a health care system.  Topics covered include the development and functioning of health teams, community participation, resources management, and management of primary health care services.

A. PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOs):

The student will be able to:

  1. Recognize, describe and discuss the basic public health science facts and principles;
  2. List and discuss the essential public health functions and their interrelationships at community and district level;
  3. Describe and discuss adult, children and family health issues;
  4. Discuss and demonstrate an understanding and practice of some generic public health competencies;
  5. Demonstrate proper public health skills for public health practice in the community as a state or local public health officer;
  6. Discuss and demonstrate community and cultural sensitivity in the health care environment;
  7. Describe and discuss the health determinants and problems of adults, children and families;
  8. Demonstrate proper cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first aid techniques;
  9. Demonstrate the ability and discuss how to make a community diagnosis based on the determinants of health;
  10. Identify and demonstrate good public health practice; and
  11. Have had work experience at a public health facility at community and district levels.
B. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOs) – GENERAL:

The students will be able to:

  1. Explain and discuss the concepts, definitions, principles and main functions of management
  2. Form and lead health teams with regards to the community being serviced
  3. Organize, control and assess health team activities
  4. Describe the fundamental principles of managing resources (i.e. equipment, drugs, time, space, paperwork, and money) in a health care facility
  5. Describe and explain how to plan, implement and evaluate health activities at the community level

SLO

PLO1

PLO2

PLO3

PLO4

PLO5

PLO6

PLO7

PLO8

PLO9

PLO10

PLO11

1

   D

 

   D

 

   D

   D

 

 

 

 

 

2

   D

 

   D

 

   D

   D

 

 

 

 

 

3

   D

 

   D

 

   D

   D

 

 

 

 

 

4

   D

 

   D

 

   D

   D

 

 

 

 

 

5

   D

 

   D

 

   D

   D

 

 

 

 

 

I = Introduced
D = Demonstrated
M = Mastered

C. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOs)  – SPECIFIC:

General SLO 1.  Explain and discuss the concepts, definitions, principles and main functions of management


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

1.1. Define management

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

1.2. Decide which principles of management apply in a variety of situations
1.3. Explain which management decisions are required in a variety of situations
1.4. Name the three broad functions of management and show how they relate to one another

General SLO 2.  Form and lead health teams with regards to the community being serviced


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

2.1. Define “health team”

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

2.2. Create a work team enjoying a good relation with the community being serviced
2.3. Set up practical and feasible objectives/targets for the team and ensure that they are agreed upon by those concerned
2.4. Motivate team members to work collectively and reduce dissatisfaction at work
2.5. Decide when, how, and to whom to delegate authority and responsibility
2.6. Choose a style of supervision that suits the health team and the circumstances in which it works

General SLO 3. Organize, control and assess health team activities


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

3.1. Design job descriptions and use them in managing a health team

 

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubrics

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

3.2. Coordinate health team activities and communicate effectively with the community

 

3.3.  Prepare and conduct meetings

3.4 Plan and manage an in-service training system for district health workers

3.5 Maintain the expected amount and quality of a health team’s working output

3.6. Assess working performance of team members

3.7 Identify causes of work deficiencies and help team members to deal with them

General SLO 4. Describe the fundamental principles of managing resources (i.e. equipment, drugs, time, space, paperwork, and money) in a health care facility

Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

4.1. Explain how to manage equipment

 

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

4.2. Describe the principles of time management
4.3. Explain how to manage the office space and paper work

4.4 Explain how to manage drugs

4.5 Properly manage small amounts of money

General SLO 5. Describe and explain how to plan, implement and evaluate health activities at the community level


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

5.1.  Describe the process of planning for health activities

Group discussions and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

5.2.  Describe how health activities are implemented

5.3.  Describe the main principles on how to evaluate health plans

D. COURSE CONTENTS

  1. Management – An Overview
    1. Concepts of management
      1. Responsibility
      2. Authority
    2. Definitions
      1. The district level
      2. Health services and health teams
      3. Management
    3. Principles:
      1. Management by objectives
      2. Learning from experience
      3. Division of labor
      4. Convergence of work
      5. Substitution of resources
      6. Functions determine structure
      7. Delegation
      8. Management by exception
      9. Shortest decision-path
    4. Main functions of management
      1. Leading
      2. Organizing
      3. Planning
      4. Controlling
  2. Working with People, or the Health-Team Approach
    1. The health team and its work in the community
      1. The health team
      2. Primary Health Care concepts and activities
      3. Community participation
    2. Leading a health team
      1. Setting and sharing objectives with the team members
      2. Motivating team members
      3. Delegating authority and responsibility
      4. Using different styles of supervision
    3. Organizing health team activities
      1. Using job descriptions
      2. Using norms and standards
      3. Coordinating activities
      4. Communications
      5. Conducting meetings
      6. Training staff
    4. Controlling and assessing the work
      1. Controlling and maintaining work standards
      2. Assessing work performance
      3. Records and reports
      4. Dealing with problems and conflicts
  3. Managing Resources in a Health Care Facility
    1. Managing equipment
      1. Ordering, storing, issuing, controlling and maintaining equipment
      2. The value and use of equipment records
    2. Managing drugs
      1. Purpose of drug management
      2. Preparing a standard drug list and estimating drug requirements
      3. Issuing drugs and controlling their use
    3. Managing money
      1. Keeping an allocation ledger
      2. Using a petty-cash imprest system
    4. Managing time
      1. Finding out how staff use time
      2. Preparing a health-unit timetable and schedules
      3. Preparing duty rosters, programme charts, and a year calendar
    5. Managing space
      1. Arranging work space and work-flow
      2. Defining the “catchment area” and using maps in district health work
      3. Making a health-district sketch map
    6. Managing paper work
      1. The functions of an office in a health center
      2. How to write official letters
      3. Setting up a filing system
  4. Managing Primary Health Care Services
    1. Planning health activities
      1. Introduction: the planning function
      2. Five steps in planning health activities
    2. Implementing health activities
      1. Introduction: the implementing function
      2. Coordinating the work of the health team
      3. Monitoring and redirecting work
      4. Supervision in action
    3. Evaluating health activities
      1. Introduction: the evaluation function
      2. Evaluating work achievement, work progress, and the use of resources
      3. Appraising staff performance
      4. The management audit
E. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION
  1. Lectures: in-class lectures, followed by group discussions and activities relevant to the topics presented.
  2. Group presentations: students’ presentations on selected readings and group discussion/ activities.
F. REQUIRED TEXT(S) AND COURSE MATERIALS

McMahon R., Barton E., Piot M. (1992).  On Being In Charge – A Guide to Management in Primary Health Care. 2nd edition, WHO – Geneva (or most recent edition).

G. REFERENCE MATERIALS

  1. Williams SJ., Torrens PR. (2007) Introduction to Health Services, 7th edition. Delmar Cengage Learning (or most recent edition).
  2. Shortell SM., Kaluzny AD. (1997) Essentials of Health Care Management. 1st edition or most recent edition.  Delmar Cengage Learning (or most recent edition)
H. INSTRUCTIONAL COST

None 

I. EVALUATION

None

J. CREDIT-BY-EXAMINATION

None

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