PH-121 Environmental Prevention Control of Disease

Course Description: This course equips students with knowledge and skills in the preparation of information on communicable diseases for the use in the communities, with the support of public health workers.  The course will enable students to identify diseases, particularly infectious diseases; identify and apply environmental methods for disease prevention; and control transmission to humans and/or animal reservoirs.

A. PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOs):

The student will be able to:

  1. Recognize, describe and discuss the basic public health science facts and principles;
  2. List and discuss the essential public health functions and their interrelationships at community and district level;
  3. Describe and discuss adult, children and family health issues;
  4. Discuss and demonstrate an understanding and practice of some generic public health competencies;
  5. Demonstrate proper public health skills for public health practice in the community as a state or local public health officer;
  6. Discuss and demonstrate community and cultural sensitivity in the health care environment;
  7. Describe and discuss the health determinants and problems of adults, children and families;
  8. Demonstrate proper cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first aid techniques;
  9. Demonstrate the ability and discuss how to make a community diagnosis based on the determinants of health;
  10. Identify and demonstrate good public health practice; and
  11. Have had work experience at a public health facility at community and district levels.
B. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOs) - GENERAL:

The student will be able to:

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic concepts of public health and epidemiology, including those of demographic data, morbidity, mortality, and basic microbiology.
  2. Recognize the important classes of infectious diseases: occupational, zoonotic, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), helminthes and vector-borne diseases, and the manner through which these infections are transmitted to human.
  3. Demonstrate and the interactions between host, infectious agent and the environment in the development of infectious disease.
  4. Identify appropriate measures to combat infections during natural disasters and to contain transmission during epidemics.
  5. Demonstrate the specimen collection procedures for mosquito larvae, water, food, and sputum, and interpret the relevant test results; and develop communication skills in sharing medical evidence.

SLO

PLO1

PLO2

PLO3

PLO4

PLO5

PLO6

PLO7

PLO8

PLO9

PLO10

PLO11

1

 ID

 

 

   D

 

 

 

 

 ID

 

 

2

 ID

 

 

   D

 

 

 

 

 ID

 

 

3

 ID

 

 

   D

 

 

 

 

 ID

 

 

4

 ID

 

 

   D

 

 

 

 

 ID

 

 

5

 ID

 

 

   D

 

 

 

 

 ID

 

 

C. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOs) – SPECIFIC

The student will be able to:

General SLO 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the basic concepts of public health and epidemiology, including those of demographic data, morbidity, mortality, and basic microbiology.


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

1.1. Define public health.

1.2.  Discuss major achievements in the evolution of public health in time.

1.3. Distinguish between the “old” public health and the “new” public health.

1.4. Describe, with examples, the major uses of epidemiology.

1.5. List and describe the main demographic measures, i.e. birth and death registrations, birth and death rates.

1.6. Calculate morbidity rates (incidence, prevalence); mortality rates (infant mortality rate [IMR], neonatal mortality rate [NMR], disease-specific and mortality rates).

1.7. Describe a disease notification system: its categories; reporting requirements and operational mechanisms.

1.8. Identify observational patterns of some common infectious diseases in the local context.

1.9. Discuss how these disease patterns might be affected by environmental factors.

1.10. Outline the classification of causative agents, i.e. bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.

1.11. Discuss the ecology and classification of organisms, the interaction between organisms: independence, mutualism, commensalisms, and parasitism.

1.12. Identify sites of colonization by indigenous microbes, reservoirs of infection, and live and inanimate reservoirs.

Group discussion and oral report to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 2. Recognize the important classes of infectious diseases: occupational, zoonotic, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), helminthes and vector-borne diseases, and the manner through which these infections are transmitted to human.


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

2.1. Describe and discuss the etiology, mode of transmission, occurrence pattern and epidemic potential of microorganism.


2.2. Identify and discuss the environmental impacts of the microorganisms and the disease is causes.


2.3. Propose possible environmental preventive and control measures for the different infectious diseases.

Group discussion and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 3. Demonstrate the interactions between host, infectious agent and the environment in the development of infectious disease.


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

3.1. Define and describe the “chain of infection” – the interaction between “infectious agent – host – environments”.


3.2. Distinguish the following terms: endemic, sporadic, epidemic, and pandemic.


3.3. Explain how an infectious disease outbreak might be recognized.


3.4. Discuss how the environment may play its part in the occurrence of a disease outbreak.


3.5. Conduct a focused discussion on the disease transmission via vectors, such as  mosquitoes, flies, fleas, lice, bedbugs, cockroaches, rats and mice; and propose relevant control measures.

Group discussion and oral report to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 4. Identify appropriate measures to combat infections during natural disasters and to contain transmission during epidemics.


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

4.1. Describe how environmental aspects might be used during outbreak investigation, i.e. hypothesis generation, testing and confirmation; initiation of further environmental measures and studies to contain the outbreak.


4.2. Identify disease implications, particularly the environmental implications of disease outbreaks and/or natural disasters.


4.3. List the steps in the implementation of preventive measures, particularly those of environmental application.


4.4. Describe the steps to control patients, contacts and the immediate environment in the context of a disease outbreak and/or a natural disaster.

Group discussion and oral reports to be graded according to a specified rubric

Individual assignments

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

General SLO 5. Demonstrate the specimen collection procedures for mosquito larvae, water, food, and sputum, and interpret the relevant test results; and develop communication skills in sharing medical evidence.


Student Learning Outcome

Assessment Strategies

5.1. Identify relevant specimens and describe the relevant sampling procedures/ techniques, i.e. food, water, soil, and plant.


5.2. Demonstrate communication skills in sharing medical facts and disease information with other public health workers and the community at large.

Group discussion and oral report to be graded according to a specified rubric

Direct and multiple choice questions in examinations and quizzes

 Course ContentS
  1. History of public health and epidemiology – An overview
    1. Definitions of public health and epidemiology
    2. Major achievements of public health
    3. Public health and globalization
    4. Major uses of epidemiology
    5. The role of epidemiology in the broad arena of public health
  2. Demographic data, morbidity and mortality
    1. Demographic measures
      • Birth/ death registration
      • Birth rates
      • Death rates
    2. Calculation of morbidity and mortality frequencies
      • Morbidity rates: incidence, prevalence
      • Mortality rates: infant mortality rate; neonatal mortality rate; disease-specific mortality rates,
    3. Disease notification system
    4. Common infectious diseases
    5. Impact of environmental factors on the disease patterns
  3. Microbiology
    1. Classification of causative agents
    2. Ecology and classification of organisms
    3. Mechanism of infections
  4. Common communicable diseases
    1. Disease etiology
    2. Mode of transmission
    3. Occurrence patterns and epidemic potential
    4. Environmental impact and environmental preventive and control measures of:
      • Bacterial infections
      • Viral infections
      • Parasite infections
      • STIs and HIV/AIDS
  5. Disease outbreaks
    1. Chain of infection
    2. Disease pattern-related terms:
      • Endemic
      • Sporadic
      • Epidemic/ outbreak
      • Pandemic
    3. Environment and its impact on disease outbreak
    4. Transmission of vector-borne diseases
    5. Environmental control measures
    6. Disease outbreak investigation - environmental aspects
  6. Disaster management – actions in emergencies 
    1. Environmental implications of disease outbreaks and natural disasters
    2. Implementation of environmental preventive measures
    3. Control of patients, contacts and the immediate environment in disease outbreaks and natural disasters
    4. Sampling specimens, techniques and procedures
    5. Sharing and communicating medical evidence and disease information
E. Methods of Instruction
  1. Lectures: in-class lectures, followed by group discussions and activities relevant to the topics presented.
  2. Group presentations: students’ presentations on selected readings and group discussion/ activities.
F. REQUIRED Text(S) AND COURSE MATERIALS

Haymann D.L.(2004).  Control of communicable diseases manual (18th Ed.).Washington, DC:  American Public Health Association (APHA). (or most recent edition).

G. reference materials

Bres B. (1986). Public health action in emergencies caused by epidemics – A practical guide. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). (or most recent edition)
Lucas A.O. and Giles HM. (1984). A short textbook of preventive medicine for the tropics (2nd Ed.). London:  Hodder Arnold. (or most recent edition).
WHO (1986). Early detection of occupational diseases. Geneva: WHO. (or most recent edition).

H.INSTRUCTIONAL COST

None

I. EVALUATION

None

J. CREDIT-BY-EXAMINATION

None

 

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