General Introduction ******************** This file documents `awk', a program that you can use to select particular records in a file and perform operations upon them. Copyright (C) 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is Edition 3 of `GAWK: Effective AWK Programming: A User's Guide for GNU Awk', for the 3.1.5 (or later) version of the GNU implementation of AWK. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being "GNU General Public License", the Front-Cover texts being (a) (see below), and with the Back-Cover Texts being (b) (see below). A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". a. "A GNU Manual" b. "You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU software. Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development."
· Foreword Some nice words about this Info file. · Preface What this Info file is about; brief history and acknowledgments. · Getting Started A basic introduction to using `awk'. How to run an `awk' program. Command-line syntax. · Regexp All about matching things using regular expressions. · Reading Files How to read files and manipulate fields. · Printing How to print using `awk'. Describes the `print' and `printf' statements. Also describes redirection of output. · Expressions Expressions are the basic building blocks of statements. · Patterns and Actions Overviews of patterns and actions. · Arrays The description and use of arrays. Also includes array-oriented control statements. · Functions Built-in and user-defined functions. · Internationalization Getting `gawk' to speak your language. · Advanced Features Stuff for advanced users, specific to `gawk'. · Invoking Gawk How to run `gawk'. · Library Functions A Library of `awk' Functions. · Sample Programs Many `awk' programs with complete explanations. · Language History The evolution of the `awk' language. · Installation Installing `gawk' under various operating systems. · Notes Notes about `gawk' extensions and possible future work. · Basic Concepts A very quick intoduction to programming concepts. · Glossary An explanation of some unfamiliar terms. · Copying Your right to copy and distribute `gawk'. · GNU Free Documentation License The license for this Info file. · Index Concept and Variable Index. · History The history of `gawk' and `awk'. · Names What name to use to find `awk'. · This Manual Using this Info file. Includes sample input files that you can use. · Conventions Typographical Conventions. · Manual History Brief history of the GNU project and this Info file. · How To Contribute Helping to save the world. · Acknowledgments Acknowledgments. · Running gawk How to run `gawk' programs; includes command-line syntax. · One-shot Running a short throwaway `awk' program. · Read Terminal Using no input files (input from terminal instead). · Long Putting permanent `awk' programs in files. · Executable Scripts Making self-contained `awk' programs. · Comments Adding documentation to `gawk' programs. · Quoting More discussion of shell quoting issues. · Sample Data Files Sample data files for use in the `awk' programs illustrated in this Info file. · Very Simple A very simple example. · Two Rules A less simple one-line example using two rules. · More Complex A more complex example. · Statements/Lines Subdividing or combining statements into lines. · Other Features Other Features of `awk'. · When When to use `gawk' and when to use other things. · Regexp Usage How to Use Regular Expressions. · Escape Sequences How to write nonprinting characters. · Regexp Operators Regular Expression Operators. · Character Lists What can go between `[...]'. · GNU Regexp Operators Operators specific to GNU software. · Case-sensitivity How to do case-insensitive matching. · Leftmost Longest How much text matches. · Computed Regexps Using Dynamic Regexps. · Locales How the locale affects things. · Records Controlling how data is split into records. · Fields An introduction to fields. · Nonconstant Fields Nonconstant Field Numbers. · Changing Fields Changing the Contents of a Field. · Field Separators The field separator and how to change it. · Regexp Field Splitting Using regexps as the field separator. · Single Character Fields Making each character a separate field. · Command Line Field Separator Setting `FS' from the command-line. · Field Splitting Summary Some final points and a summary table. · Constant Size Reading constant width data. · Multiple Line Reading multi-line records. · Getline Reading files under explicit program control using the `getline' function. · Plain Getline Using `getline' with no arguments. · Getline/Variable Using `getline' into a variable. · Getline/File Using `getline' from a file. · Getline/Variable/File Using `getline' into a variable from a file. · Getline/Pipe Using `getline' from a pipe. · Getline/Variable/Pipe Using `getline' into a variable from a pipe. · Getline/Coprocess Using `getline' from a coprocess. · Getline/Variable/Coprocess Using `getline' into a variable from a coprocess. · Getline Notes Important things to know about `getline'. · Getline Summary Summary of `getline' Variants. · Print The `print' statement. · Print Examples Simple examples of `print' statements. · Output Separators The output separators and how to change them. · OFMT Controlling Numeric Output With `print'. · Printf The `printf' statement. · Basic Printf Syntax of the `printf' statement. · Control Letters Format-control letters. · Format Modifiers Format-specification modifiers. · Printf Examples Several examples. · Redirection How to redirect output to multiple files and pipes. · Special Files File name interpretation in `gawk'. `gawk' allows access to inherited file descriptors. · Special FD Special files for I/O. · Special Process Special files for process information. · Special Network Special files for network communications. · Special Caveats Things to watch out for. · Close Files And Pipes Closing Input and Output Files and Pipes. · Constants String, numeric and regexp constants. · Scalar Constants Numeric and string constants. · Nondecimal-numbers What are octal and hex numbers. · Regexp Constants Regular Expression constants. · Using Constant Regexps When and how to use a regexp constant. · Variables Variables give names to values for later use. · Using Variables Using variables in your programs. · Assignment Options Setting variables on the command-line and a summary of command-line syntax. This is an advanced method of input. · Conversion The conversion of strings to numbers and vice versa. · Arithmetic Ops Arithmetic operations (`+', `-', etc.) · Concatenation Concatenating strings. · Assignment Ops Changing the value of a variable or a field. · Increment Ops Incrementing the numeric value of a variable. · Truth Values What is ``true'' and what is ``false''. · Typing and Comparison How variables acquire types and how this affects comparison of numbers and strings with `<', etc. · Boolean Ops Combining comparison expressions using boolean operators `||' (``or''), `&&' (``and'') and `!' (``not''). · Conditional Exp Conditional expressions select between two subexpressions under control of a third subexpression. · Function Calls A function call is an expression. · Precedence How various operators nest. · Pattern Overview What goes into a pattern. · Regexp Patterns Using regexps as patterns. · Expression Patterns Any expression can be used as a pattern. · Ranges Pairs of patterns specify record ranges. · BEGIN/END Specifying initialization and cleanup rules. · Using BEGIN/END How and why to use BEGIN/END rules. · I/O And BEGIN/END I/O issues in BEGIN/END rules. · Empty The empty pattern, which matches every record. · Using Shell Variables How to use shell variables with `awk'. · Action Overview What goes into an action. · Statements Describes the various control statements in detail. · If Statement Conditionally execute some `awk' statements. · While Statement Loop until some condition is satisfied. · Do Statement Do specified action while looping until some condition is satisfied. · For Statement Another looping statement, that provides initialization and increment clauses. · Switch Statement Switch/case evaluation for conditional execution of statements based on a value. · Break Statement Immediately exit the innermost enclosing loop. · Continue Statement Skip to the end of the innermost enclosing loop. · Next Statement Stop processing the current input record. · Nextfile Statement Stop processing the current file. · Exit Statement Stop execution of `awk'. · Built-in Variables Summarizes the built-in variables. · User-modified Built-in variables that you change to control `awk'. · Auto-set Built-in variables where `awk' gives you information. · ARGC and ARGV Ways to use `ARGC' and `ARGV'. · Array Intro Introduction to Arrays · Reference to Elements How to examine one element of an array. · Assigning Elements How to change an element of an array. · Array Example Basic Example of an Array · Scanning an Array A variation of the `for' statement. It loops through the indices of an array's existing elements. · Delete The `delete' statement removes an element from an array. · Numeric Array Subscripts How to use numbers as subscripts in `awk'. · Uninitialized Subscripts Using Uninitialized variables as subscripts. · Multi-dimensional Emulating multidimensional arrays in `awk'. · Multi-scanning Scanning multidimensional arrays. · Array Sorting Sorting array values and indices. · Built-in Summarizes the built-in functions. · Calling Built-in How to call built-in functions. · Numeric Functions Functions that work with numbers, including `int', `sin' and `rand'. · String Functions Functions for string manipulation, such as `split', `match' and `sprintf'. · Gory Details More than you want to know about `\' and `&' with `sub', `gsub', and `gensub'. · I/O Functions Functions for files and shell commands. · Time Functions Functions for dealing with timestamps. · Bitwise Functions Functions for bitwise operations. · I18N Functions Functions for string translation. · User-defined Describes User-defined functions in detail. · Definition Syntax How to write definitions and what they mean. · Function Example An example function definition and what it does. · Function Caveats Things to watch out for. · Return Statement Specifying the value a function returns. · Dynamic Typing How variable types can change at runtime. · I18N and L10N Internationalization and Localization. · Explaining gettext How GNU `gettext' works. · Programmer i18n Features for the programmer. · Translator i18n Features for the translator. · String Extraction Extracting marked strings. · Printf Ordering Rearranging `printf' arguments. · I18N Portability `awk'-level portability issues. · I18N Example A simple i18n example. · Gawk I18N `gawk' is also internationalized. · Nondecimal Data Allowing nondecimal input data. · Two-way I/O Two-way communications with another process. · TCP/IP Networking Using `gawk' for network programming. · Portal Files Using `gawk' with BSD portals. · Profiling Profiling your `awk' programs. · Command Line How to run `awk'. · Options Command-line options and their meanings. · Other Arguments Input file names and variable assignments. · AWKPATH Variable Searching directories for `awk' programs. · Obsolete Obsolete Options and/or features. · Undocumented Undocumented Options and Features. · Known Bugs Known Bugs in `gawk'. · Library Names How to best name private global variables in library functions. · General Functions Functions that are of general use. · Nextfile Function Two implementations of a `nextfile' function. · Assert Function A function for assertions in `awk' programs. · Round Function A function for rounding if `sprintf' does not do it correctly. · Cliff Random Function The Cliff Random Number Generator. · Ordinal Functions Functions for using characters as numbers and vice versa. · Join Function A function to join an array into a string. · Gettimeofday Function A function to get formatted times. · Data File Management Functions for managing command-line data files. · Filetrans Function A function for handling data file transitions. · Rewind Function A function for rereading the current file. · File Checking Checking that data files are readable. · Empty Files Checking for zero-length files. · Ignoring Assigns Treating assignments as file names. · Getopt Function A function for processing command-line arguments. · Passwd Functions Functions for getting user information. · Group Functions Functions for getting group information. · Running Examples How to run these examples. · Clones Clones of common utilities. · Cut Program The `cut' utility. · Egrep Program The `egrep' utility. · Id Program The `id' utility. · Split Program The `split' utility. · Tee Program The `tee' utility. · Uniq Program The `uniq' utility. · Wc Program The `wc' utility. · Miscellaneous Programs Some interesting `awk' programs. · Dupword Program Finding duplicated words in a document. · Alarm Program An alarm clock. · Translate Program A program similar to the `tr' utility. · Labels Program Printing mailing labels. · Word Sorting A program to produce a word usage count. · History Sorting Eliminating duplicate entries from a history file. · Extract Program Pulling out programs from Texinfo source files. · Simple Sed A Simple Stream Editor. · Igawk Program A wrapper for `awk' that includes files. · V7/SVR3.1 The major changes between V7 and System V Release 3.1. · SVR4 Minor changes between System V Releases 3.1 and 4. · POSIX New features from the POSIX standard. · BTL New features from the Bell Laboratories version of `awk'. · POSIX/GNU The extensions in `gawk' not in POSIX `awk'. · Contributors The major contributors to `gawk'. · Gawk Distribution What is in the `gawk' distribution. · Getting How to get the distribution. · Extracting How to extract the distribution. · Distribution contents What is in the distribution. · Unix Installation Installing `gawk' under various versions of Unix. · Quick Installation Compiling `gawk' under Unix. · Additional Configuration Options Other compile-time options. · Configuration Philosophy How it's all supposed to work. · Non-Unix Installation Installation on Other Operating Systems. · Amiga Installation Installing `gawk' on an Amiga. · BeOS Installation Installing `gawk' on BeOS. · PC Installation Installing and Compiling `gawk' on MS-DOS and OS/2. · PC Binary Installation Installing a prepared distribution. · PC Compiling Compiling `gawk' for MS-DOS, Windows32, and OS/2. · PC Using Running `gawk' on MS-DOS, Windows32 and OS/2. · PC Dynamic Compiling `gawk' for dynamic libraries. · Cygwin Building and running `gawk' for Cygwin. · VMS Installation Installing `gawk' on VMS. · VMS Compilation How to compile `gawk' under VMS. · VMS Installation Details How to install `gawk' under VMS. · VMS Running How to run `gawk' under VMS. · VMS POSIX Alternate instructions for VMS POSIX. · Unsupported Systems whose ports are no longer supported. · Atari Installation Installing `gawk' on the Atari ST. · Atari Compiling Compiling `gawk' on Atari. · Atari Using Running `gawk' on Atari. · Tandem Installation Installing `gawk' on a Tandem. · Bugs Reporting Problems and Bugs. · Other Versions Other freely available `awk' implementations. · Compatibility Mode How to disable certain `gawk' extensions. · Additions Making Additions To `gawk'. · Adding Code Adding code to the main body of `gawk'. · New Ports Porting `gawk' to a new operating system. · Dynamic Extensions Adding new built-in functions to `gawk'. · Internals A brief look at some `gawk' internals. · Sample Library A example of new functions. · Internal File Description What the new functions will do. · Internal File Ops The code for internal file operations. · Using Internal File Ops How to use an external extension. · Future Extensions New features that may be implemented one day. · Basic High Level The high level view. · Basic Data Typing A very quick intro to data types. · Floating Point Issues Stuff to know about floating-point numbers. To Miriam, for making me complete. To Chana, for the joy you bring us. To Rivka, for the exponential increase. To Nachum, for the added dimension. To Malka, for the new beginning.