Introduction to Statistics
Using Calc

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Table of contents
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  1. Chapter one: Introduction
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Simple random samples
    3. 1.3 Experimental design
  2. Visualizing data
    1. 2.1 Circle and column charts
    2. 2.2 Distributions and histograms
    3. Using the FREQUENCY function in a spreadsheet
    4. Shapes of distributions
    5. Using OpenOffice or Excel to make charts
  3. Measures of Middle and Spread
    1. 3.1 Measures of middle: Mode, Median, Mean, Midrange
    2. 3.2 Differences in the Distribution of Data: range, standard deviation
    3. 3.3 Discrete and continuous variables
    4. 3.4 Relative standing
  4. Paired Data and Scatter Diagrams
    1. 4.1 Best fit lines
    2. 4.2 Slope and intercept
    3. 4.3 Nature of the relationship
    4. 4.4 Strength of the relationship: correlation
  5. Probability
    1. 5.1 Ways to determine a probability
    2. 5.2 Sample space
  6. Probability Distributions
    1. 6.1 Types of probabilities and distributions
    2. 6.2 Mean and standard deviation from a distribution
  7. Introduction to the Normal Distribution
    1. 7.1 Distribution shape
    2. 7.2 Seven pennies
    3. 7.3 The normal curve
    4. 7.4 x to area
    5. 7.5 area to x
  8. Normal Distribution and Z-Values
    1. 8.1 Distribution of Statistics
    2. 8.2 Central limit theorem and standard error
  9. Confidence Intervals
    1. 9.1 Inference and point estimates
    2. 9.12 Introduction to confidence intervals for the mean
    3. 9.18 Inferences and confidence intervals for n ≥ 30 where σ is known
    4. 9.2 Confidence intervals for n ≥ 5 using sx
    5. 9.3 Confidence intervals for proportions
    6. 9.4 Deciding on a sample size
  10. Hypothesis Testing
    1. 10.1 Confidence Interval Testing
    2. 10.2 Hypothesis Testing
    3. 10.3 P-value
    4. 10.4 One tail notes
    5. 10.5 Hypothesis test for a proportion
  11. Inferences about sample means
    1. 11.1 Paired differences: Dependent samples
    2. 11.2 T-test for means for independent samples

Technology note

This statistics text utilizes Calc to make statistical calculations. This text also includes references to Microsoft Excel functions where they differ from Calc functions. Screen shots, however, are almost always from Calc. Gnumeric spreadsheet users can also use this text following the Microsoft Excel function formats.

The text does not use any add-ins, add-ons, statistical extensions, or separate dedicated statistical packages. This choice is very deliberate. Course alumni are most likely to encounter default installations of spreadsheet software without such additional software. The introduction to statistics alumni should not feel that they cannot "do" statistics because they lack a special add-in or dedicated package function that may require administrative privileges to install if even available. Given an "out-of-the-box" installation of a spreadsheet, alumni should be able to generate and use statistics.

Beginning with Calc on Ubuntu 9.04, calc formulas switched from using a semi-colon (;) to using a comma (0). Ubuntu 9.10 and 10.04 have continued to use a build of that uses commas in formulas with multiple arguments. on Windows has retained the use of a semi-colon. Many of the screenshots in this text were produced either on pre-9.04 Ubuntu machines or Windows based computers. These screenshots often show the use of a semi-colon. On Ubuntu versions after 9.04 the semi-colon must be replaced by a comma.

The Gnome spreadsheet Gnumeric and Excel both use commas in their multi-argument functions.

If a comma does not work in a formula, try a semi-colon. If a semi-colon does not work in a formula, try a comma. The use of commas and semi-colons in formula is not a set international standard and never can be. The way in which commas, semi-colons, and periods are used in numeric systems around the globe differs, impacting which can be used in formulas.

StatisticsLee LingCOMFSM