College of Micronesia-FSM Botany SC 250 Final

Multiple Choice
Short answer

Multiple Choice

1. A botanist who identifies two plants as being the same species because "they look alike" is using
  1. evolutionary species concepts
  2. morphological species concepts
  3. genetic species concepts
  4. biological species concepts
  5. visiocular species concepts
2. A new species originates in…
  1. many places at once.
  2. a few interconnected places.
  3. a single isolated place.
  4. all places at once.
3. In terms of evolutionary survival, a "winner species" is that in which individuals
  1. die at the oldest age
  2. die at the youngest age
  3. die with the most toys
  4. die with the most offspring
  5. die with dignity
4. Which of the following is taken as evidence of evolution?
  1. the cloning of Dolly the sheep
  2. the development of immunoresistance in AIDS
  3. the development of retinol to reduce wrinkling of the skin
  4. the birth of septuplets using fertility drugs
  5. the presence of cyanobacteria on Pohnpei
5. Natural selection presumes that...
  1. population growth outpaces food production
  2. population growth equals food production
  3. population growth lags food production
  4. population growth is food production
6. Speciation that has occurred on the mountain tops of Pohnpei is most likely due to:
  1. temporal isolation
  2. temporary isolation
  3. mechanical isolation
  4. gametic isolation
  5. microhabitat isolation

7. Morphological plasticity mean that a species...

  1. displays different growth forms in response to different environmental conditions
  2. displays a plastic flexibility in its chloroplastic membranes of the organelles
  3. displays metamorphic capabilities that allow the species to repeatedly change appearance over short time frames
  4. displays a pathological preference for plastic compounds in its micorrhizal associations.
  5. displays an ability to speciate on a moments notice
  6. displays might morphin' power ranger capabilities
8. A tetraploid hybrid has...
  1. one set of chromosomes in its nucleus
  2. two sets of chromosomes in its nucleus
  3. three sets of chromosomes in its nucleus
  4. four sets of chromosomes in its nucleus
9. Cyanobacteria can contain
  1. chlorophyll
  2. a nucleus
  3. chloroplasts
  4. mitochondria
10. Cyanobacteria get their characteristic color from
  1. beta caroteins and chlorophyll
  2. chitin and chlorophyll
  3. chloroxy and chorophyll
  4. pizza and pepsi
  5. phycocyanin and chlorophyll
11. The nitrogen fixing nodule in Cyanobacteria is called a
  1. heterocyst
  2. highdeehocyst
  3. holocyst
  4. homocyst

12. A botanical fairy ring is

  1. a gathering of magical beings in a circle
  2. a special kind of metal ring that you place on a basidiomycetes to provide necessary trace elements
  3. an ever-expanding circular formation of basidiomycetes growing in open areas
  4. a basidiomycetes with a indeterminate sexual orientation
13. In a mycorrhizal association with plantae, fungi typically provide to the plant roots:
  1. hydrogen
  2. nitrogen
  3. oxygen
  4. phosphorus
  5. sugar
  6. starch
14. The phrase "we are immortal in our genes" refers to:
  1. how good we look in a nice new pair of genes
  2. life after death
  3. the continuity of genetic material down through generations
  4. the importance of our genes to the expression of physical traits

15. In terms of evolutionary success, a long life is only beneficial if...

  1. maximal size is attained by the organism continuing to grow throughout the increased lifespan
  2. physical fitness is enhanced by the organism remaining physically healthy throughout the increased lifespan
  3. reproduction is enhanced by the organism remaining reproductively viable throughout the increased lifespan

16. Fungal hyphae...

  1. create phosphorus
  2. destroy phosphorus
  3. immobilize phosphorus
  4. transport phosphorus
17. Giant kelp is held to the ocean floor by
  1. fungi
  2. roots
  3. hold-fast
  4. mineralization
18.  If you take a blade of algae and rub it on your face for ten minutes and wind up with your face covered in slimy mucilage, then you have most likely found a:
  1. blue-green algae
  2. brown algae
  3. green algae
  4. rainbow coalition algae
  5. red algae

19. On the beaches of Kosrae there occasionally washes up these masses of small brown leaves with little white balls.  This algal material floats on the surface of the ocean.  It is a member of:

  1. Chrysophyta
  2. Cycadophyta
  3. Gingkophyta
  4. Lycopodophyta
  5. Pinophyta
sargsea.JPG (21408 bytes)

20.  The shown  leaf is from:

  1. Chrysophyta
  2. Cycadophyta
  3. Gingkophyta
  4. Lycopodophyta
  5. Pinophyta
gingko30.JPG (8119 bytes)

21. How do plants conserve water during dry conditions?

  1. by moving into the shade
  2. by closing their stoma
  3. by forming micorrhizal associations
  4. by taking in nitrogen
  5. by releasing oxygen

22. C4 plants avoid a problem that plagues C3 plants, a problem associated with photosynthezing during conditions under which the plant must conserve water, what problem does the C4 mechanism circumvent?

  1. the build-up of carbon dioxide inside the leaf leading to photosynthesis
  2. the build-up of oxygen inside the leaf leading to photorespiration
  3. the build-up of perspiration inside the leaf leading to malodorousness
  4. the build-up of water inside the leaf leading to hyperhydration
23. At the very center of the reaction center of chlorophyll is a single atom of:
  1. magnesium
  2. magnetite
  3. manganese
  4. monosodium glutamate
  5. nitrogen
24. The color of carotenoids is:
  1. blues and violets
  2. browns and blacks
  3. deep velvet
  4. greens and blues
  5. reds, oranges, and yellows


25. The antenna complex is designed to:
  1. bring in television stations more clearly
  2. focus light energy onto the reaction center
  3. produce oxygen
  4. transfer electrons
26. To close its leaves when they are touched, Mimosa pudica uses:
  1. electrical signals
  2. hormonal signals
  3. nyctinastic signals
  4. thigmotrophic signals

27. At the core of  scientific methods is the concept...

  1. of faithfulness, that the results are beyond question and must be taken on faith
  2. of falsifiability, that there exists experiments that could disprove a hypothesis
  3. of ingenuity, that there exists ingeneousness that will drive the method forward
  4. of morality, that there exists rules for proper human behavior
  5. of predictability, that there exists a predestined outcome
  6. of veracity, that the method produces the unassailable truth under all circumstances

28. What is wrong with the statement, "the moon is populated by little green men who can read our minds and will hide whenever anyone on the Earth looks for them, and will flee into deep space whenever a spacecraft comes near"?

  1. it is an underlying tenet of the X-files
  2. it is not falsifiable
  3. it is not fashionable
  4. nothing, it is true
29. Taxonomy is the study of
  1. taxes
  2. taxis
  3. categorization
  4. taxol
  5. Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew tree)
30. Hexhead elatus is a
  1. algae
  2. angiosperm
  3. bolt
  4. gymnosperm
  5. none of the above
31. "Fixing" nitrogen means
  1. converting N2  to NH3, NO2, and NO3
  2. converting NH3 to N2, NO2, and NO3
  3. converting NO2 to N2, NH3, NO3
  4. converting NO3 to N2, NH3, NO2
  5. repairing nitrogen that has been damaged
32. Life can survive at -45F.
  1. false
  2. true
33.  Archegonia are the
  1. female organs of the gametophyte in bryophytes
  2. male organs of the gametophyte in bryophytes
34.  Antheridia are the
  1. female organs of the gametophyte in bryophytes
  2. male organs of the gametophyte in bryophytes
35. Does natural selection create new genes that increase the adaptivity of the plant to its environment?
  1. no
  2. yes
36. Tonight when I am be drinking the sacred root there will stuff in the cup that is real slimey and goopy. What is the source of this mucous-like substance?
  1. secondary xylem
  2. secondary phloem
  3. periderm

37. Cinnamon comes from:

  1. secondary xylem
  2. secondary phloem
  3. periderm

38. In what phase do bryophytes spend most of their life?

  1. diploid
  2. haploid
  3. monoploid
  4. tetraploid

39. Do bryophytes contains hormones such as auxin?

  1. no
  2. yes

40. Are there bryophytes that reproduce asexually?

  1. no
  2. yes


____ 41. Ascomycetes      a. Eukartyotic brown algae
____ 42. Basidiomycetes      b. Eukartyotic green algae
____ 43. Chlorophyta      c. Eukartyotic red algae
____ 44. Chloroxybacteria      d. Eukaryotic with elaborate spore containers
____ 45. Cyanobacteria      e. Eukaryotic with peglike spore structures
____ 46. Deuteromycetes      f. Eukaryotic with saclike spore structures
____ 47. Phaeophyta      g. Eukaryotic without sexual reproduction
____ 48. Rodophyta      h. Prokaryotic with phycobillins
____ 49. Zygomycetes      i. Prokaryotic with similarity to chloroplasts
     j. Prokaryotic with chitinous cells walls


____ 50. Club and spike mosses      a. Acrocarpus
____ 51. Ferns      b. Lycopodophyta
____ 52. Mosses with an erect growth habit, main stem is of limited length      c. Pleurocarpus
____ 53 Mosses with a matlike growth habit, main stem is of unlimited length      d. Pteridophyta


____ 54 Abscissic acid      A. Carries carbohydrates
____ 55 Auxin      B. Carries water and minerals
____ 56 Cytokinins      C. Inhibits growth
____ 57 Ethylene      D. Promotes cell division
____ 58 Gibberillins      E. Promotes internode elongation
____ 59 Phloem      F. Ripens fruit
____ 60 Xylem      G. Stimulates apical growth

Short answer

61. What is the name of the faulty theory that would make the following prediction: "If you read many books and study very hard throughout your life, your children will be smarter."

62. Why are mosses so small?

63. Why are mosses so wet?

64. What features distinguish the bryophytes from the ferns of pteridophyta?

65. Is the Australian pine, Casuarina equisetifolia, a gymnosperm in Pinophyta?

66. Why is the Australian pine, Casuarina equisetifolia, a gymnosperm in Pinophyta OR Why is the Australian pine, Casuarina equisetifolia, not a gymnosperm in Pinophyta?

66. Are there any 80 million year old Gingko trees that are alive now?

67. Is the Cook Pine, Araucaria columnaris, a gymnosperm?

68. Do gymnosperms have flowers?

69. What color is the flower of the Cook Pine, Araucaria columnaris?

70. Plants go through a complex chemical process when converting sugars and starches to energetic electrons.  These energetic electrons power the production of ATP and NADPH, the energy currency of cells.  The electrons, once depleted of energy, are finally "donated" to Oxygen.  Why can't plants simplify by directly oxidizing the sugars and starches?


71. By what process do cells convert sugars and starches to alcohol?

72. Some plants have red leaves due to the presence of red xanthophylls. Xanthophylls are oxidized carotenoids found in the antenna complexes of the photosystem.  What is the function of these xanthophylls in the antenna complexes?  


73. Mature, fully formed chloroplasts need only three inputs to do their daily work of generating sugars and starches.  Name the three inputs.  


74. What is the rhizosphere?

75. From what type of plant tissue are Louisville Sluggers made?

76. What, botanically speaking, is a sucker?


77. Is sugar cane a monocot or dicot?

78. How do we know whether sugar cane is a monocot or a dicot just by inspection of the structure of the stem (or by eating it!)

79. Do plants use oxygen for respiration?

80. What are the chemical inputs necessary for respiration?


81. Why do plants respire at all – why not simply create ATP by photosynthesis whenever energy is needed?

82. When plants respire anaerobically, two possible results are "bread rises" and "people can get stupid." What are the chemical compounds produced by anaerobic plant respiration?


83. Who or what is Roy G. Biv?


84. What is the physical, optical, explanation for the green coloration of plants?


85. Why would a plant want to be black?


86. What are the daily outputs of photosynthesis?


87. Name a plant that uses its above ground stem as its primary storage for sugars.

88. What is a stolon?

89. What is the function of stoma?

90. What is the common English name for Artocarpis altilis?

91. What is the common English name for Cordyline fruticosa?

92. What is the botanical names for the fruit type of a coconut?

93. Miracle-Gro™ for tomatoes plant food (fertilizer) is marked as being "18-18-21."  What do the numbers mean and what specific nutrient does each number represent?


94. What are knots in wood?


95. What is Seasonal Affective Disorder?


96. What houseplant can you grow that will be a natural humidifier of the air in winter?


97. What is self-compatibility?


98. Correctly label the identified items below:

stem.gif (3789 bytes)

99. Label the listed items on the one of the following two images.  Both images are of the same flower.

  1. corolla
  2. petals
  3. stamen
  4. stigma

fx03.jpg (8090 bytes)fx04.jpg (11166 bytes)

100. Label the listed items on any one of the following three images. All three images are of the same flower.

  1. filament
  2. anther
  3. androecium
  4. style
  5. stigma
  6. gynoecium

fx09.jpg (20368 bytes)fx10.jpg (13790 bytes)fx11.jpg (12270 bytes)

101. On the following cutway of an ivory nut label the exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp layers.

fx12.jpg (15849 bytes)

102. Fill in the four blank cells on the chart below:

q7.gif (11223 bytes)