COMET Admissions Examination Statistical Summaries Spring 2006

Basic Statistics

The COMET admissions examination consisted of a reading section, grammar and vocabulary section, an essay, and a math section consisting of four subsections. The basic statistics for this sections and subsections are presented in the table one below.

 Statistic m1 m2 m3 m4 SM Read Write Grammar count 1795 1794 1795 1795 1806 1797 1783 1796 min 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 max 10 19 10 9 37 35 40 78 range 10 19 10 9 37 34 40 75 mode 9 3 2 2 15 14 0 33 median 7 3 3 2 15 14 22 35 mean 6.6897 3.6856 3.5064 2.4345 16.2148 14.8114 20.6932 37.0434 stdev 2.2997 2.1324 2.1969 1.4336 6.2405 5.1457 12.4327 14.6300 coef var. 0.34 0.58 0.63 0.59 0.38 0.35 0.60 0.39 low95 6.58 3.59 3.40 2.37 15.93 14.57 20.12 36.37 mean 6.69 3.69 3.51 2.43 16.21 14.81 20.69 37.04 high95 6.80 3.78 3.61 2.50 16.50 15.05 21.27 37.72 stand error 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.15 0.12 0.29 0.35 skew -0.45 0.79 0.70 0.69 0.52 0.67 -0.27 0.40 kurtosis -0.57 1.29 0.02 0.88 0.09 0.77 -1.04 -0.49

Table one.

m1 is the first math subsection and contains ten arithmetic level problems.

m2 is the second math subsection and contains ten prealgebra level problems.

m3 is the third math subsection and contains ten elementary algebra problems.

m4 is the fourth math subsection and contains ten college level algebra problems.

SM is the sum of the math subsections and is out of forty.

Writing (essay) is the essay score out of 40.

Grammar is the grammar and vocabulary score out of 80.

The reading section average is separated from random by less than one standard deviation. While significant due to the sample size, the low average reinforced analysis in the language and literature division that the reading section might be problematic.

Correlations

The correlations between the subsections is given in table two below.

 Correlations SM Read Write Grammar SM 1.00 0.55 0.55 0.60 Read 0.55 1.00 0.59 0.64 Write 0.55 0.59 1.00 0.69 Grammar 0.60 0.64 0.69 1.00

Table two.

Although the first two subsections of the math test were rewritten to require less reading ability, the math subsections sum remains, given the sample size, correlated moderately to moderately-strong with the English sections.

Writing correlated more strongly with the grammar section that with the reading section. Past experience in the language and literature division indicated that the writing section, the essay, was a trustworthy indicator of student ability. The strong correlation between the trusted writing section and the grammar section and the lower correlation of both to reading led the language and literature division to request that the reading score not be used in the final admissions decision this year. The division plans to redesign this section.

Distributions

The distribution of scores on each section is given in chart one. The score is on the horizontal axis, the vertical axis is the number of students with that score.

Chart one.

With the exception of the writing section, the other sections distributed in a manner which is considered statistically reasonable. That is, the frequency (the number of students) rises with the score towards the mean, and then falls as the score continues to rise past the mean to the maximum possible score. If the distribution (the shape of the curve) is a symmetrical heap, the most common score is also the mean score as well as the median score. This distribution is sometimes called a "bell curve" and is mathematically described by the normal or student's t-distribution.

In the past, the writing section, the essay, has in performed in a statistically reasonable fashion except for the number of students who score a sum of zero. This was true again this year with 235 scores of zero. Yet the removal of those 235 scores would not return the distribution this year to a bell curve.

The most common score on the essay, except for zero, was the maximum possible score of 40 with seventy-four students attaining a score of 40. The frequency rises steadily from eight students with a score of 2 to fifty-nine students with a score of 20. From a score of 20 to 35 the distribution is fairly flat. Then the distribution drops slightly until a score of 40.

The behavior of the essay section suggests that the section did not distinguish well among the seventy-four students with a score of 40. Bear in mind that a score of forty represents a paper with some errors and omissions of grammar, vocabulary, organization, cohesion, and content coverage. The distribution argues that the rubric should now include a score of five in each of the five areas. This should spread the seventy-four scores of 40 across the ten-point range from 40 to 50. This might also provide enough information to potentially place students in a writing course at the college.

Rank order

With the recommendation to remove the reading section from the calculations, the admissions board approved a rank-order formula using z-scores on the mathematics section, the grammar and vocabulary section, and the writing (essay) section. The formula placed a 50% weight on the essay, 25% on grammar and vocabulary, and a 25% weight on mathematics. The individual weighted z-scores were added to generate a sum of z-scores. The resulting z-score was linearly transformed to produced the final COMET score. The basic statistics for the z-score sum and the COMET score are given in table three.

 Statistic z-score sum COMET count 1806 1806 min -8.46 84.35 max 8.23 997.78 range 16.69 913.43 mode -5.56 243.17 median 0.05 549.95 mean -0.06 544.34 stdev 3.53 193.05 cv -62.51 0.35

Table three.

A COMET score of 700 was approved as the cut-off for regular admission to an associate degree program. A COMET score of 250 was established as the minimum score for admission to a certificate program. Students who have scored between 250 and 700 will be eligible for either the Intensive English Instruction sequence or a certificate program based on their individual position on a rank order by state. Decisions on the exact nature of the IEI admissions mechanism are still to be determined.

Bear in mind that the college now operates based on fixed resources and specific projections of the number students that the college can serve. Each site has an target enrollment number and an maximim enrollment capacity limit. Like many smaller colleges, the college opts to admit a specific number of students.

The result is that the target admissions number is a fixed number. Put another way, there is not the possibility at present of all high schools increasing the number of students attaining regular admission to the college. If one high school sees an increase in the number of students who have attained regular admission, then some other high school (or high schools) must have seen a decrease in the number of students who gained regular admission. Thus admission is competitive and is mathematically termed a zero-sum game.

High schools that are using increases in regular admissions as an indicator do so at their own peril. If another high school improves by a larger amount, then that first high school could see a drop in admissions despite real improvement in their own educational processes.

Table four records the distribution by state and high school of the students into the three categories delineated above.

 State School Non-admitted Certificate/IEI Associate Total Chuuk (empty) 1 1 Berea 2 19 3 24 CHS 65 204 5 274 CSC 7 71 1 79 CSDA 10 1 11 Faichuk 16 30 46 Mizpah 21 1 22 Nukuno 1 10 1 12 PLHA 4 42 1 47 Saramen 30 25 55 SNHS 5 41 46 WHS 15 72 2 89 Xavier 35 35 Chuuk 116 550 75 741 Kosrae KHS 86 55 141 Kosrae Result 86 55 141 Pohnpei (empty) 2 2 ? 1 1 CCA PNI 10 10 CCA PNI Tchrs 4 3 7 Madolehnihmw 69 29 98 OHWA 8 1 9 PICS 269 152 421 PNI campus 82 2 84 SDA PNI 9 28 37 Pohnpei 2 442 225 669 Yap (empty) 2 2 DOE 1 1 NICHS 45 5 50 OIHS 26 8 34 YCS 3 3 YHS 4 70 42 116 YMH 6 1 7 YSC 30 3 33 YSDA 2 7 9 Yap Result 4 184 67 255 Total 122 1262 422 1806

Table four.

Note that the table above reports the high school name reported by those taking the test. The decision on the IEI admissions mechanism was still pending at the time this report was written.

The non-admitted status is not equivalent to the the "limbo" status discussed in prior years. "Limbo" was an arbitrary term used to refer to students who had a z-score sum on reading, writing, and grammar which was less than negative three. The nearest equivalent this year would be students below a COMET score of 328. Bear in mind that the calculation this year involves mathematics, grammar, and a weighted essay score.

The average COMET score seen in table five represents a measure of the relative performance on the writing (essay) section, the grammar section, and the mathematics section.

 School Mean COMET School Mean COMET Xavier 878.35 Overall 544.34 CCA PNI 853.2 Overall 544.34 YSDA 775.26 Mizpah 536.25 SDA PNI 771.19 NICHS 534.41 CCAP tch 685.67 PSC 504.34 Saramen 680.05 YCS 503.63 PICS 657.22 Berea 488.63 Kosrae 650.08 YMH 473.03 KHS 650.08 Nukuno 442.68 Pohnpei 641.51 Chuuk 421.8 Madol HS 635.48 PLHA 417.05 YHS 613.82 SNHS 398.43 CSDA 601.12 CSC 389 OIHS 595.03 WHS 370.87 OHWA 591.4 CHS 341.51 Yap 587.06 Faichuuk 296.32 YSC 556.51 Overall 544.34

Table five.

A COMET average below 400 is exceptionally weak and below 328 represents essentially random performance on all included subsections. As this is the first year with a non-admission category, a conservative cut-off at 250 was established.

While the individual high school scores are of interest to individual schools, state educational leadership might consider the mean performance of all of the schools in their state. Note that Kosrae reported results from only a single school, thus the state mean is the mean for that school.

Where a performance is strong, no one effort can be credited with the success. Where a performance is weak, no one lack can be faulted as the cause of the poor performance. Education is a set of canoes with many people paddling. Students, parents, teachers, administrators, state leadership, and special programs should all share in the credit where credit is due, in the blame where performances are weak.

Table five is depicted graphically in chart two.

Chart two.

95% Confidence intervals for the COMET mean score by high school

Determining whether one high school is statistically significantly stronger in rank order than another high school requires determining whether the mean COMET scores are sufficiently separated. The following table provides the exact values for the 95% confidence interval for the COMET means by high school.

 School n stdev low95% high95% mean Xavier 35 56.61 858.91 897.8 878.35 CCA PNI 10 85.11 792.32 914.09 853.2 YSDA 9 88.13 707.51 843 775.26 SDA PNI 37 132.17 727.12 815.25 771.19 Saramen 55 84.58 657.19 702.92 680.05 PICS 421 131.04 644.66 669.77 657.22 KHS 141 134.72 627.65 672.51 650.08 Madolehnihmw 98 114.72 612.48 658.48 635.48 YHS 116 176.86 581.3 646.35 613.82 CSDA 11 81.95 546.06 656.17 601.12 OIHS 34 121.71 552.56 637.5 595.03 OHWA 9 93.84 519.28 663.53 591.4 YSC 33 106.97 518.58 594.44 556.51 Overall 1806 193.05 535.43 553.25 544.34 Mizpah 22 110.9 487.08 585.42 536.25 NICHS 50 125.75 498.67 570.15 534.41 PNI campus 84 132.18 475.65 533.02 504.34 Berea 24 182.21 411.69 565.57 488.63 YMH 7 169.43 316.34 629.73 473.03 Nukuno 12 177.65 329.81 555.56 442.68 PLHA 47 124.03 380.63 453.46 417.05 SNHS 46 108.2 366.3 430.57 398.43 CSC 79 117.02 362.79 415.21 389 WHS 89 127.22 344.07 397.67 370.87 CHS 274 121.3 327.09 355.94 341.51 Faichuk 46 98.31 267.13 325.52 296.32

Table six.

Thus, for example, while PICS has a higher mean COMET score than KHS, KHS high school's 95% confidence interval spans 22 points on either side of the KHS mean COMET of 650.08. The PICS mean of 657.22 is only 7.14 points away. As the separation does not exceed 22 points, the two schools are in a statistical dead heat. Table six above is graphically shown in chart three on the next page.

The vertical bars show the extent of the 95% confidence interval for the mean score. Where a bar for one school overlaps the mean ("the ball") for another school, the former is not statistically separated from the mean of the later. Note that the upper limit for the possible mean for Faichuuk high school is less than 328, thus confirming that in terms of the admissions examination, Faichuuk scored no different from students randomly choosing answers.

Chart three.

Writing (essay) section

The writing section is considered by both the language and literature division and by those from other divisions who mark this section to possibly be singularly indicative of the capacity of students to academically succeed at the college – if there is such a thing as a single indicator. The maximum possible score is a forty, and there is a general sense that a score above 32 indicates a potential to succeed at the college. Scores of twenty and under are considered to be significantly weak and raise questions as to whether these students can tackle any program that requires the ability to communicate in written English. Table six records the mean essay scores by state and by high school.

 School essay mean School essay mean CCA PNI 38.7 Overall 20.69 CCAP tch 37.43 Mizpah 20.64 Xavier 36.86 YCS 17.33 SDA PNI 34.89 Berea 16.79 YSDA 34.11 PSC 16.77 Saramen 33.56 Nukuno 15.5 Kosrae 28.48 SNHS 14.49 KHS 28.48 Chuuk 13.73 OIHS 27.12 YMH 13 CSDA 27.09 CSC 12.91 YHS 26.86 WHS 12.52 OHWA 26.11 PLHA 12.15 PICS 25.56 CHS 7.33 Pohnpei 25.06 Faichuuk 5.14 Yap 24.98 Madol HS 24.42 YSC 23.03 NICHS 21.63 Overall 20.69

Table seven.

The data in table seven is shown in chart four on the next page.

Chart four.

The mean essay scores suggest that Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap states are, to differing degrees, accomplishing the task of instructing students in the skills necessary to compose written English essays. As a state, despite the impact of Xavier and Saramen Chuuk Academy, the Chuuk state average is abysmal. Looking at the individual public high schools in Chuuk indicates an almost complete lack of ability to accomplish a written composition in the English language.

While some fields such as science have significant support costs, English language and literature is likely the least expensive program on a per student basis. This is not likely a failure due to a lack of funding alone.

The 95% confidence interval for the mean writing (essay) score allows one to determine whether the means for two schools are statistically significantly separated.

 State School n mean stdev 95% low 95% high mean Chuuk Xavier 35 36.86 3.66 35.6 38.11 36.86 Chuuk Saramen 55 33.56 5.56 32.06 35.07 33.56 Chuuk CSDA 11 27.09 6.95 22.42 31.76 27.09 Chuuk Mizpah 22 20.64 9.2 16.56 24.72 20.64 Chuuk Berea 24 16.79 12.83 11.37 22.21 16.79 Chuuk Nukuno 12 15.5 11.29 8.33 22.67 15.5 Chuuk SNHS 45 14.49 9.46 11.65 17.33 14.49 Chuuk Chuuk 728 13.73 12.7 12.8 14.65 13.73 Chuuk CSC 79 12.91 10.06 10.66 15.16 12.91 Chuuk WHS 86 12.52 9.91 10.4 14.65 12.52 Chuuk PLHA 47 12.15 10.37 9.1 15.19 12.15 Chuuk CHS 270 7.33 8.95 6.26 8.4 7.33 Chuuk Faichuuk 42 5.14 8.56 2.48 7.81 5.14 Kosrae Kosrae 141 28.48 8.09 27.13 29.83 28.48 Kosrae KHS 141 28.48 8.09 27.13 29.83 28.48 Overall Overall 1783 20.69 12.43 20.12 21.27 20.69 Pohnpei CCA PNI 10 38.7 1.57 37.58 39.82 38.7 Pohnpei CCAP tchrs 7 37.43 2.94 34.71 40.14 37.43 Pohnpei SDA PNI 36 34.89 4.68 33.31 36.47 34.89 Pohnpei Ohwa 9 26.11 7.69 20.2 32.02 26.11 Pohnpei PICS 420 25.56 8.14 24.78 26.34 25.56 Pohnpei Pohnpei 665 25.06 9.45 24.35 25.78 25.06 Pohnpei Madol HS 97 24.42 9.1 22.59 26.26 24.42 Pohnpei PSC 84 16.77 10.53 14.49 19.06 16.77 Yap YSDA 9 34.11 6.07 29.44 38.78 34.11 Yap OIHS 34 27.12 9.04 23.96 30.27 27.12 Yap YHS 111 26.86 11.19 24.75 28.96 26.86 Yap Yap 249 24.98 10.71 23.64 26.32 24.98 Yap YSC 33 23.03 7.33 20.43 25.63 23.03 Yap NICHS 49 21.63 9.43 18.92 24.34 21.63 Yap YMH 7 13 14.71 -0.6 26.6 13

Table eight.

Chart five depicts the 95% confidence interval for the mean writing (essay) scores, with the high schools sorted by state and then in descending writing score order. The vertical bars are the extent of the 95% confidence interval for the sample mean. Where a vertical line for one school overlaps the mean (the center ball) of a another school, the first school is not statistically significantly separated from the second school's mean.

Chart five.

Changes in writing (essay) performance 2005 to 2006

During the marking process some graders noted that the essays appeared to be slightly stronger this year versus last year. Although year-to-year comparisons are always risky due to potential differences in the grading teams and other confounding factors, showing that there was no significant change would disconfirm the possibility the essays improved.

The mean scores by high school were compared year-to-year. The results are seen in table nine. NS indicates that the year-to-year change is not significant.

 2005 Results 2006 results State School n mean stdev n mean stdev Significance Chuuk Chuuk 620 11.67 11.11 728 13.73 12.7 Yes, change: 2.06 Chuuk Berea Christian High School 20 18 10.46 24 16.79 12.83 NS Chuuk Chuuk High School 224 7.71 9.61 270 7.33 8.95 NS Chuuk Chuuk SDA 11 19.36 10.81 11 27.09 6.95 NS Chuuk Chuuk State Campus 43 11.37 8.56 79 12.91 10.06 NS Chuuk Mizpah Christian High School 13 17.15 8.3 22 20.64 9.2 NS Chuuk Nukuno Christian High School 10 11.2 6.75 12 15.5 11.29 NS Chuuk Pentecostal Lighthouse Academy 52 8.44 7.61 47 12.15 10.37 Yes, change: 3.71 Chuuk Saramen Chuuk Academy 47 22.98 8.93 55 33.56 5.56 Yes, change: 10.58 Chuuk Southern Nomwoneas HS 59 11.07 8.87 45 14.49 9.46 NS Chuuk Weno High School 117 8.85 8.17 86 12.52 9.91 Yes, change: 3.67 Chuuk Xavier High School 24 37.71 3.22 35 36.86 3.66 NS Kosrae Kosrae (KHS) 191 23.24 8.13 141 28.48 8.09 Yes, change: 5.24 Kosrae Kosrae High School 191 23.24 8.13 141 28.48 8.09 Yes, change: 5.24 Pohnpei Pohnpei 643 23.44 8.48 665 25.06 9.45 Yes, change: 1.62 Pohnpei Calvary Christian Academy P 15 32.47 5.76 10 38.7 1.57 Yes, change: 6.23 Pohnpei Ohwa Christian High School 7 26.86 6.23 9 26.11 7.69 NS Pohnpei Pohnpei Islands Central School 505 22.63 8.07 420 25.56 8.14 Yes, change: 2.93 Pohnpei Pohnpei SDA 32 31.47 6.26 36 34.89 4.68 Yes, change: 3.42 Pohnpei Pohnpei State Campus 60 19.78 8.64 84 16.77 10.53 NS Yap Yap 228 23.96 9.76 249 24.98 10.71 NS Yap Neighboring Islands High School 41 19.54 6.98 49 21.63 9.43 NS Yap Outer Islands High School 31 19.65 9.18 34 27.12 9.04 Yes, change: 7.47 Yap Yap High School 121 25.37 10.48 111 26.86 11.19 NS Yap Yap Medical Hospital 19 24.05 5.4 7 13 14.71 NS Yap Yap SDA 12 32.42 5.74 9 34.11 6.07 NS Yap Yap State Campus 4 34 8.16 33 23.03 7.33 NS

Table nine.

The only changes which were large enough to attain significance were positive changes. No school dropped by a statistically significant amount.

Mathematics section

Year-to-year mathematics subsection performance

Table ten records the year-to-year performance from 2005 to 2006 on the mathematics subsections. The table also shows the averages for the top four-hundred rank order students on each subsection.

 Column one 2005 4.00 2006 6.69 2006 top 400 8.57 Column two 2005 3.25 2006 3.69 2006 top 400 5.74 Column three 2005 3.08 2006 3.51 2006 top 400 5.74 Column four 2005 2.25 2006 2.43 2006 top 400 3.27

Table ten.

Each subsection showed a small improvement, with the largest improvement seen in the first subsection. This improvement is thought to be due to the removal of English, to the extent that it could be removed, from the first subsection. Failure by a student to succeed in the first subsection is now a strong indicator of a failure of the student to perform basic arithmetic operations correctly.

The redesign of the mathematics subsections with the accompanying improvement in scores, coupled with a curriculum realignment within developmental mathematics, led to a redesign of the mathematics placement function.

Mean Mathematics Scores by High School

The mean score by high school for the mathematics section represents the average number correct out of forty for a high school.

 School Math School Math Xavier 25.54 Mizpah 14.32 CCA PNI 23.8 NICHS 14.3 SDA PNI 21.08 OIHS 14.29 PICS 20.58 PLHA 14.28 KHS 20.06 Berea 13.5 Madol HS 19.88 CCAP Tchrs 12.57 YSDA 16.22 YMH 12.43 Overall 16.21 CHS 12.04 YHS 16.21 SNHS 11.28 PSC 16.01 CSC 11.11 YSC 15.88 Nukuno 10.75 OHWA 15.33 WHS 10.38 CSDA 15 Faichuuk 8.93 Saramen 14.6

Table eleven.

A student blindly guessing on all forty five-option multiple choice questions should get at least eight correct. Given that the first few problems involve basic arithmetic, scores around twelve or under are extremely weak performances. Table eleven is depicted graphically in chart six.

Chart six.

The performance at Nukuno was statistically indistinguishable from a random score of eight. Weno high school and Faichuuk high school performed so poorly in both mathematics and English that there is merit to an argument which would shift all of whatever resources are being spent on mathematics education to the teaching of English. These schools will not do significantly worse by not teaching mathematics – there is no where down for them to go from the their current status.

Chuuk high school, while exceptionally weak in performance, still outperformed the other public high schools in Chuuk on the mathematics section. Given the poor performance of Faichuuk on the essay and mathematics sections, there is scant evidence at present that dispersing the students away from Weno will lead to improved academic results.

Chart seven on the next page depicts the 95% confidence interval for the mean mathematics scores, with the high schools sorted by state and then in descending mathematics score order. The vertical bars are the extent of the 95% confidence interval for the sample mean. Where a vertical line for one school overlaps the mean (the center ball) of a another school, the first school is not statistically significantly separated from the second school's mean.

Chart seven.

Mathematics Placement Data

Incoming freshmen placement over the past three fall terms is given in the table below:

 Course Fall 03 Fall 05 Fall 06 MS 090 162 184 75 MS 095 94 80 144 MS 098 101 77 34 MS 100 70 105 139 MS 101/150 25 17 30

Table twelve.

The mathematics placement by high school is given in the table below:

 Non-admit Certificate/IEI Regular admission Sum State School 90 95 90 95 98 100 90 95 98 100 101 Chuuk (empty) 1 1 Berea 2 18 1 1 2 24 CHS 65 190 14 3 1 1 274 CSC 7 62 8 1 1 79 CSDA 8 2 1 11 Faichuk 16 30 46 Mizpah 20 1 1 22 Nukuno 1 10 1 12 PLHA 4 32 8 2 1 47 Saramen 28 1 1 15 9 1 55 SNHS 5 39 2 46 WHS 15 69 3 2 89 Xavier 3 6 1 24 1 35 Kosrae KHS 46 36 4 4 19 1 23 8 141 Pohnpei (empty) 1 1 2 ? 1 1 CCA PNI 6 4 10 CCA PNI Tchrs 4 2 1 7 Madolehnihmw 19 48 2 1 20 1 7 98 OHWA 3 5 1 9 PICS 97 135 24 13 11 39 23 60 19 421 PNI campus 43 31 5 3 1 1 84 SDA PNI 7 1 1 8 5 3 12 37 Yap (empty) 2 2 DOE 1 1 NICHS 32 13 1 1 3 50 OIHS 18 8 5 3 34 YCS 3 3 YHS 4 40 29 1 7 28 4 2 1 116 YMH 5 1 1 7 YSC 17 12 1 2 1 33 YSDA 1 1 4 3 9 Total 121 1 844 359 34 25 75 144 34 139 30 1806

Table thirteen.

The college admissions examination is an instrument that has been refined over the years towards the sole purpose of determining admissions at the college. The examination is not intended as either a diagnostic or summative measure of the effectiveness of high schools or state departments of education.

The admissions test can indicate, at the extreme ends, whether a school is performing strongly on these admissions measures or performing in a manner indistinguishable from random. Comments above have been made where performances are extraordinarily weak.

Diversity

The differences in the performances by state have repercussions on the make-up of the regular admissions. Table fourteen compares the composition of the regular admissions to the state shares of the national population. The table reflects the state of the high school, not the cultural identity of the individual test takers.

 State Associate RF Pop 2000 Pop RF Factor Chuuk 75 18% 53595 50% 0.35 Kosrae 55 13% 7686 7% 1.81 Pohnpei 225 53% 34486 32% 1.65 Yap 67 16% 11241 11% 1.51 422 100% 107008 100% 0

Table fourteen.

Thus in terms of the high school's state share of the national population, students from high schools in Kosrae are the most over-represented group in the regular admissions category with 1.81 times their share of the national population, while those from high schools in Chuuk are under-represented at a factor of about a third of their share of the national population. Each high school has students from every state, however the data is still likely roughly reflective of the underlying cultural diversity the college can expect among freshmen in the fall of 2006.

The college admissions examination is neither a diagnostic nor comprehensive measure of learning. The college admissions examination is designed for a single purpose: admitting students to the appropriate programs for their abilities in English and mathematics. Despite the focus of the examination, many sponsored programs utilize the admissions results and statistics in their reports. Other programs in the high schools also choose to use the college admissions examination as one of their many indicators. The following are analyses of the essay and mathematics section with some of these subgroups broken out separately.

Writing (essay) section

The following table details the performance of the high schools in descending mean essay score order, repeating an earlier table but including some of the subgroups of interest. Explanation of the various subgroups is given after the table. The writing section had a total possible of 40.

 School n stdev low high mean CCA 10 1.57 37.58 39.82 38.7 Xavier 35 3.66 35.6 38.11 36.86 KHS au 12 2.93 34.8 38.53 36.67 KHS adv 10 4.64 31.68 38.32 35 PSDA 36 4.68 33.31 36.47 34.89 YSDA 9 6.07 29.44 38.78 34.11 Saramen 55 5.56 32.06 35.07 33.56 PICS ub 22 5.03 30.95 35.41 33.18 KHS ub 6 5.6 22.96 34.71 28.83 KHS 141 8.09 27.13 29.83 28.48 KHS reg 99 7.48 26.03 29.02 27.53 PICS tsp 89 6.93 25.80 28.72 27.26 OIHS 34 9.04 23.96 30.27 27.12 CSDA 11 6.95 22.42 31.76 27.09 YHS 111 11.19 24.75 28.96 26.86 OHWA 9 7.69 20.2 32.02 26.11 PICS 420 8.14 24.78 26.34 25.56 MHS tsp 36 8.41 21.93 27.63 24.78 PICS reg 309 8.29 23.6 25.46 24.53 Madol HS 97 9.1 22.59 26.26 24.42 MHS reg 61 9.54 21.77 26.65 24.21 KHS x 14 10.97 17.09 29.76 23.43 YSC 33 7.33 20.43 25.63 23.03 NICHS 49 9.43 18.92 24.34 21.63 Mean 1783 12.43 20.12 21.27 20.69 Mizpah 22 9.2 16.56 24.72 20.64 Berea 24 12.83 11.37 22.21 16.79 PSC 84 10.53 14.49 19.06 16.77 Nukuno 12 11.29 8.33 22.67 15.5 SNHS 45 9.46 11.65 17.33 14.49 CSC 79 10.06 10.66 15.16 12.91 WHS 86 9.91 10.4 14.65 12.52 PLHA 47 10.37 9.1 15.19 12.15 CHS 270 8.95 6.26 8.4 7.33 Faichuk 42 8.56 2.48 7.81 5.14

Table fifteen.

KHS au refers to the Kosrae Upward Bound students who were also in the KHS advanced class one.

KHS adv refers to students in the KHS advanced class one but who were not also in Upward Bound.

PICS ub refers to the Pohnpei Upward Bound students at PICS.

KHS ub refers to the KHS Upward Bound students who were not in the advanced class one.

KHS refers to all KHS students.

KHS reg refers to the "regular" students at KHS, that is, all of the non-Upward Bound, non-advanced class students.

PICS refers to all PICS students.

PICS reg refers to the "regular" students at PICS, that is, all of the non-Upward Bound students.

KHS x refers to test takers who took the test at KHS but who were not seniors this year in KHS. These test takers were, typically, older former students of KHS.

tsp refers to Talent Search Program students at PICS and Madolehnihmw High School (MHS).

A chart of some of the table above is provided on the next page.

Chart eight.

The mean essay score is marked by the central ball. The extent of the 95% confidence interval for the mean is given by the vertical bars. Where the 95% confidence interval for one school or subgroup overlaps the ball of another school or subgroup, then the scores are not sufficiently separated to ensure statistical significance.

Of some interest is that a class of 22 students at KHS working in an academically challenging curriculum and referred to as the advanced class performed on par with the top private schools in the nation. Of note is that while twelve of these students benefitted from the Upward Bound program, ten others were not a part of Upward Bound at the time of the admissions examination. These ten outperformed students who were in the Kosrae Upward Bound program but not in the advanced class in Kosrae. The ten also outperformed the Pohnpei Upward Bound participants.

Mathematics Section

The following table details the performance of the high schools in descending mean mathematics score order, repeating an earlier table but including some of the subgroups of interest. The mathematics score is the sum of the four subsections, the total number correct out of forty.

 School n stdev low high math mean PICS ub 22 3.31 28.62 31.56 30.09 KHS adv-ub 12 3.88 26.37 31.3 28.83 KHS ub 6 2.94 25.24 31.42 28.33 Xavier 35 4.31 24.06 27.02 25.54 KHS adv 10 4.24 22.17 28.23 25.2 CCA 10 4.54 20.55 27.05 23.8 PICS tsp 90 5.53 21.75 24.07 22.91 Madol HS tsp 36 2.71 20.3 22.14 21.22 PSDA 37 5.56 19.23 22.94 21.08 PICS 421 5.8 20.02 21.13 20.58 KHS 141 6 19.06 21.06 20.06 PICS reg 309 5.13 18.65 19.79 19.22 Madol HS reg 62 4.06 18.07 20.13 19.10 Madol HS 98 3.75 19.13 20.63 19.88 KHS reg 99 4.89 17.53 19.48 18.51 KHS x 14 4.85 13.56 19.15 16.36 YSDA 9 3.31 13.68 18.77 16.22 Mean 1806 6.24 15.93 16.5 16.21 YHS 116 5.61 15.17 17.24 16.21 PSC 84 5.01 14.92 17.1 16.01 YSC 33 3.79 14.54 17.22 15.88 OHWA 9 2.4 13.49 17.18 15.33 CSDA 11 2.86 13.08 16.92 15 Saramen 55 4.13 13.48 15.72 14.6 Mizpah 22 2.42 13.25 15.39 14.32 NICHS 50 4.05 13.15 15.45 14.3 OIHS 34 3.36 13.12 15.47 14.29 PLHA 47 4.64 12.91 15.64 14.28 Berea 24 4.36 11.66 15.34 13.5 YMH 7 4.5 8.26 16.59 12.43 CHS 274 3.4 11.63 12.44 12.04 SNHS 46 2.61 10.51 12.06 11.28 CSC 79 3.24 10.39 11.84 11.11 Nukuno 12 4.65 7.79 13.71 10.75 WHS 89 3.19 9.71 11.05 10.38 Faichuk 46 2.47 8.2 9.67 8.93

Table sixteen.

The subgroups above are explained in the previous section. Of note in the above table is that top three mean mathematics scores were attained by Upward Bound students. Both the Upward Bound students at PICS and the Upward Bound students in the advanced class at KHS were statistically significantly separated from the strongest performance by a school, which was Xavier. The Upward Bound students at KHS not in the advanced class were not statistically separated from Xavier, but in rank order they were higher.

Also of note is that the non-Upward Bound students in the Kosrae advanced class were statistically significantly stronger than the Pohnpei SDA students, and they performed on par with the Calvary Christian Academy students on Pohnpei. In mathematics and on the essay, the KHS advanced class performed competitively against the top private schools.

In mathematics, the Upward Bound students are generally as strong as or stronger than students benefitting from a private high school education.

A chart of the table above is provided on the next page.

Chart nine.

Mathematics Placement Data

The following table shows the break-down of placement by the subgroups. Code "r" refers to a regular, that is, non-Upward Bound, non-advanced class student.

 State School code 90 95 98 100 101/150 Sum Chuuk (empty) r 1 1 Berea r 21 3 24 CHS r 258 15 1 274 CSC r 70 8 1 79 CSDA r 9 2 11 Faichuk r 46 46 Mizpah r 21 1 22 Nukuno r 12 12 PLHA r 36 8 3 47 Saramen r 43 10 2 55 SNHS r 44 2 46 WHS r 86 3 89 Xavier r 3 6 1 24 1 35 Kosrae KHS adv 1 3 5 1 10 au 1 1 6 4 12 r 39 45 1 11 3 99 ub 1 5 6 x 8 6 14 Pohnpei (empty) r 1 1 2 ? r 1 1 CCA PNI r 6 4 10 CCA PNI Tchrs r 6 1 7 Madolehnihmw r 20 68 1 9 98 OHWA r 3 6 9 PICS r 108 174 44 64 9 399 ub 3 9 10 22 PNI campus r 43 31 5 4 1 84 SDA PNI r 15 5 4 13 37 Yap (empty) r 2 2 DOE r 1 1 NICHS r 33 14 3 50 OIHS r 23 11 34 YCS r 3 3 YHS r 51 57 5 2 1 116 YMH r 6 1 7 YSC r 19 12 1 1 33 YSDA r 5 4 9 Sums 1040 504 68 164 30 1806

Students who place into MS 100 or MS 101/101 are deemed college level students.

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