Statistic or Parameter 
Symbol 
Equations 
Excel 
Basic Statistics 
Square root 
Ö 

=SQRT(number) 
Sample size 
n 

=COUNT(data) 
Sample mean 

Sx/n 
=AVERAGE(data) 
Population mean 
µ 
SX/N 
=AVERAGE(populationData) 
Sample standard deviation 
sx or s 

=STDEV(data) 
Sample Coefficient of Variation 
CV 
100(sx/) 
=100*STDEV(data)/AVERAGE(data) 
Linear Regression Statistics 
Slope 
b 

=SLOPE(y data, x data) 
Intercept 
a 

=INTERCEPT(y data, x data) 
Correlation 
r 

=CORREL(y data, x data) 
Coefficient of Determination 
r² 

=(CORREL(y data, x data))^2 




Normal Statistics 
Calculate a z value from an x 
z 
^{= } 
=STANDARDIZE(x, m, s) 
Calculate an x value from a z 
x 
= s z + m 
= s*z+m 
Calculate a zstatistic from an x 
z 

=(µ)/(sx/SQRT(n)) 
Calculate a tstatistic (tstat) 
t 

=(µ)/(sx/SQRT(n)) 
Calculate an x from a z 


=m + z_{c}*sx/sqrt(n) 
Find a probability p from a z value 


=NORMSDIST(z) 
Find a z value from a probability p 


=NORMSINV(p) 
Confidence interval statistics 
Degrees of freedom 
df 
= n1 

Find a z_{c} value from a confidence level c 
z_{c} 

=ABS(NORMSINV((1c)/2)) 
Find a t_{c} value from a confidence level c 
t_{c} 

=TINV(1c,df) 
Calculate an error tolerance E of a mean for n ³ 30 using
sx 
E 

=z_{c}*sx/SQRT(n) 
Calculate an error tolerance E of a mean for n < 30 using sx. Can also be used for
n ³ 30. 
E 

=t_{c}*sx/SQRT(n) 
Calculate a confidence interval for a population mean m from
a sample mean x and an error tolerance E 

xE< m
<x+E 

Hypothesis Testing 
Calculate tcritical for a twotailed test 
t_{c} 

=TINV(a,df) 
Calculate tcritical for a onetailed test 
t_{c} 

=TINV(2*a,df) 
Calculate a pvalue from a tstatistic 
p 

= TDIST(ABS(tstat),df,#tails) 